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146 Cards in this Set

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balanced polymorphism
-the maintenance of two or more alleles in a population
-due to the selective advantage of the heterozygote
-the 2 alleles are "balanced" and persist
-heterozygous carriers survive(resistent to malaria)
Lactose interloerance
another example of biocultural evolution
- in all human populations, infants and young children are able to kigest milk
-broken down by enzyme " lactase"
lactose tolerant populations
the geographical distribution of lactose tolerance is related toa history of cultural dependence on fresh milk poducts
-shifts gene frequency for more lactose tolerance
populations genetics
measures and explains evolutionary changes in contemporary populations
-the study of the frequency of alleles, genotypes, and phenotypes i populations from a microevolutionary perspective
population
a group of interbreeding individuals
-a group where one is most likely to find a mate
-such a population shares "gene pool"
gene pool
the total complement of genes ahared by the reproductive members of a population.
mate choice factors
geographical, ecological, and social
cultural rules
human populations have degrees of
- endogamy
-exogamy
endogamy
marrying inside the group
exogamy
marrying outside the group
population genetics to determine if evolution took place
first specific human populations are identified
- next measure allele frequency for specific traits
-compare fequencies with set predicted by mathematical model
Hardy- weinberg " equilibrium"
the central theorem of population genetics
-the mathematical relationship expressign the " predicted distribution" of alleles in populations
Hardy-Weinberg Formula
predicts distribution of genes in a population
- involves percentages remaining constant(under certain conditions)
-genes having equal chance of recombining in next generation
-determines if allele frequencies are changed
two levels of adaptive responses
physiological responses:
1. long term
2. acclimatization ( short term)
long term
long-term ( genetic) evolutionary changes
- characterize all individuals w/i a population or species
short-term ( acclimatization)
temporary physiological response
responses to environment
exs. of environmental condidition
- solar radiation
-thermal environment
-high altitude
skin color influenced by:
hemoglobin
carotene
melanin
hemoglobin
when it is carrying oxgen, gives a reddish tinge to the skin
carotene
a plant pigment which the body synthesizes into vitamin A; provides a yelllowish cast
melanin
skin colored most influenced by pigment melanin
melanin theories
ultraviolet radiation( UV)
Vitamin D Hypothesis
folate(UV light and Vitamin D synthesis)
ultraviolet radiation(UV)
darket skin was favorable nearer equator
-melanin blocks UV and helps prevent skin cancer
Vitamin D hypothesis
another explanation for depigmented skin in some northern areas
-lighter skin may help absorb UV where less sun light
-UV needed for vitamin D production
Folate ( UV light and Vitamin D Synthesis)
an additional explanation for distribution of skin color
-UV radiation depletes folate
-dark skin a protective response
thermal environment
mammmals and birds have evolved complex physiological mechanisms to maintain a constant body temperature
human response to heat
long-term adaptations to heat evolved in our ancestors
sweat glands
loss of heat by evaporative cooling
-capacity to sweat in all populations almost equal
vasodilation
widening of capilaries near the skin's surface
-"hot" blood dissipates heat to the surrounding air
body
size and proportion regulate body temperature
two rules about relationship b/w body temperature and climate
1. bergmann's rule
2. allen's rule
bergmann's rule
body size that live in colder climates
allen's rule
human response to cold
metabolic rate in response to cold
increasing metabolic rate and shivering
-short-term generation of body heat
vasoconstriction
narrowing of blood vessels
factors that produce stress due to high atltitude:
hypoxia( reduced available oxygen)
-intense solar radiation
-cold
-low humidity
-wind ( amplifies cold stress)
adult acclimatization
people born in low elevation
-move to higher area
developmental acclimatization
high-altitude natives adapt during growth
infectious diseases
caused by invading organisms such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
-they have exerted selcective pressures on human populations
-they influence the frequency of certain alleles that affect the immune response
hunters and gathers in relation to infectious disease
-less problem w/ i.disease
-nomadic groups
-less contact w/ fefuse heaps and vectors
vectors
agents transmit disease
-mosquitoes are vectors for malaria
-fleas for bubonic plaque
agriculture and cities
settlements became large, crowded
-opprotunity for disease greater at unsanity
endemic(continuous) disease
requires larger population
-small bands of hunters-gatherers not faced w/ continuous exposure to endemic disease
zoonotic diseases
disease transmitted to humans through contact w/ non-human domesticated animals
pahtogens
agents, especially microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi, that infect a host and cause disease
black death
best-known epidemic in history
-bubonic plague spread by fleas
-mid 14th century europe where as many as one-third died
epidemic
spreads rapidly among many
pandemic
disease affecting large number over wide area
-potentially worldwide
-influenza outbreak in 1918 at the end of WW1
selective pressures on pathogens
humans and pathogens exert selective pressure on eachother
-microorganisms also evolve and adapt to various pressures
-it is an advantage to a pathogen not to kill its host to quickly
-populations exposed for first time to new disease frequently die in huge numbers
SARS
severe acute respiratory syndrome
-another contemporary example of zoonotic disease
the decrease of infectious disease
before 20th century infectious disease number one cause of death.
-the use of antibiotics starting late 1940's reduced overall death rate
-hear disease and cancer became leading causes
antibiotics
exerted selective pressure on bacteria which developed antibiotic strains ( natural selection)-influenza,pneumonia, cholera, tuberculosis, less responsive to treatment
modern humans are a result of...
biocultural evolution
evolutionary and cultural forces operate on our life course through...
interaction of environment and genes
an ex. or interaction b/w environment an genes
stature-children w/good health and adequate nutrition;more likely to reach their genetic potential for height;
growth
refers to increase in cell mass or number of cells
development
cells develop different types of tissues
brain growth
grows at a greater rate than any other part except for the eye.- at birth the brain is about 25% of its adult size.
nutritional requirements for growth
nutrition has an impact on growth at every stage
nutrients needed for growth and development
proeins, carbs,lipids(fats), vitamins, minerals
evolution of nutritional requirements
amount of each nutrient needed
-coevoled w/foods available to human ancestors (inherited ability to digest certain foods)
essential amino acids
they are required; reflect ancestral diet high in animal protein; essential amino acids must be obtained from food; not synthesized in body. -found in meat
modern diets
many diseases are related to lack of fit; the ability to store fat was one an advantage; now it is a liability b/c food is relatively abundant
agricultural revolution
responsible for some food and health problems; narrowed food base; increase in human population; millions face undernutrition, malnutrition, starvation
other factors influencing growth and development
genetics, hormones, environmental factors
genetics
determines potentials for growth and development
hormones
genes can effect hormones; almost alll have effect on growth
environmental factors
altitude and climate; external factors effect nutrition/ climate(cold/hot) influences body shape
life history theory
study of human growth and development from evolutionary perspective; how natural selection has operated on the life cycle
phase of life history
humans have more phases than other mammals
most primates have **** phases
four
monkeys, apes, and humans have how many phases in life
five
humans add a ***** phase for women
sixth
prenatall(to birth)
the first phase in the human life cycle
infancy
the second face in the human life cycle
( while baby nurses)
childhood
the third phase in the human life cycle
(to puberty)
adolescence
4th phase in human life cycle
( subadult)-(puberty to end of growth)
adulthood
5th and final phase of human life cycle ( the completion of growth)
postreproductive
the extra phase in human females ( the years after menopause)
brain growth in infancy( stage 1)
undeveloped brain at infancy
-advantageous for birth through narrow pelvis
-adaptive b/c growth takes place in stimulating envirionment
language development in brain occurs...
during the first three years
nursing in infancy ( stage2)
four years seem norm for most humans in evolutionary past
Chidhood (stage 3)
b/w weaning and puberty
-humans have an unusually long childhood
-reflects inmportance of learning for our species
adolescence (stage 4)
hormonal changes are the drining force behind physical changes during adolescence
adulthood (stage 5)
pregnancy and child care occupy much of a woman's adult life in most cultures
postreproductive (stage 6)
a post-reproductive stage is unique life cycle stage for humans( not found in primates)
-menopause signal entry into new stage
why is there a long nonreproductive period?
parenting,grandmother,nonselection
parenting
females programmed to live years after last child
grandmother theory
free to provide food and other resources to children and grandchildren
-increases survival of grandchildren
nonselection theory
menopause is an artifact of the recent extension of the human life span
human longevity
humans have long life span
-life span (max) not changed in thousands of years
-life expectancy has increased
senescence(explanation of aging)
the process of physiological decline in body function that occurs with aging
pleiotropy
genes that enhanced reproductive success in earlier years may have detrimental effects later
pleiotropic genes
have more than one effect or different effects during the life cycle
free radicals
molecules that can damage cells
-protection provided by antioxidants
Telomere hypothesis
DNA sequence at end of chromosome
- it is shortened each time cell divides
life style
more important than genes in aging process
individuals, society, evolution
humans are social animals; study ways natural selection has acted on behavior of humans in social contexts
- such as increasing reproductive success or fitness
behavior ecology
examines human social behavior in evolutionary framework
evolutionary psychology
study of how natural selection has influenced how humans (and other primates) think
chimpanzee and bonobo
( ex. of evolutionary psychology)
chimpanzee society
based on male-male competition
-occasional violence
Bonobo society
female dominated
-based on cooperation and peacful interaction
there are challenges and problems facing humanity that should be seen by what perspective
"anthropological perspective"
anthropological perspective
includes consideration of our "biological and cultural evolution" to understand the impact of human activities
-studies early human activities
-insight from past helps understanding and plans for future
map of deforestation
humans are numerous
-more than 6 billion
-humans regard our species as masters of the planet
longevity of human species
humans not a species w/ much longevity
-homo erectus most successful(human) species
homo-erectus existing for ***** years
1.5 million/ most successful human species
rate of culture change
most of human history-technology simple
-rate of culture change is slow
mesolithic(archaeological period or stage)
(proceeding neolithic) increased expoitation of smaller animals, fish, shellfish
-increased variety of tools
-somewhat less nomadic
domestication
around 10,000 years ago
-some people keep domesticated animals and grow crops
neolithic
the period when humans began to domesticate plants and animals
-date varies
-more reliable food sources
-increased population growth
neolithic period is significant b/c...
drastic impact on environment w/ permanent settlements
-most forest and woodlands cleared in europe( some forest fires by hunter-gatherers)
- devastating impact by agriculture communities
cutting forest( early)
reasons: clearing for cultivation and grazing
-fire wood
-lumber for construction
cutting forest (later)
reasons: small communtities became towns and cities
-shipbuilding, fortifications, temples, palaces
exploitation of forests lasted for **** years
10-15,000 years
cedars of Lebanon
one of the earliest exs. of extensive lumber use
-cutting famous cedars of lebanon
maya civilization( mexico, central america) collapse
speculated that collapse resulted from: climate change
-over- cultivation
-depletion of nutrient-poor tropical soils
Andean argriculture (Peru)
archaelogists find positive exs.
-peru and bolivia had regions w/ poor soil
-difficult to produce meager existence in modern world
early andean agriculture
innovative techniques of ancestors
-produced enormous wealth
-building one of the largest, best organized empires in the world
inka( inca)
agricultural fields
-included terracing, irrigation
- methods today have improved crop yield(w/ less damage fertilizer and cost)
biodiversity
totality of all living thigs
- from bacteria to humans
first major extinction occured about **** milliion years ago
250 million years-resulted from climate change following the joining of all landmasses into one super continet
second major extinction occure about ** million years ago
65 million years-ended ecolutionary processes that produced the dinosaurs
-believed to be result of climate changes following impact of asteroid
third major extinction
began in late pleistocene or early holocene
-
holocene period
recent period- started 10,000 years ago
-recent and ongoing extinctions due to activities of homo sapiens
-continuing now
hunting and climate
many scientists believ several large mammal species9 especially prey animals) pushed to extinction b/c of overhunting by early humans
extinction in north america
57 mammalian species became extinct
- mammoth, mastodon, gieant ground sloth, saber-tooth cat, large rodents, numerous grazing animals
- result of climate, and hunting activities
new world hunting
established by humans in North America 12,000 yrs ago
olsen-chubbuck site
archeological site
-bison kill site
-game drive contributed to demise of some large-bodied brey species in new world
continued impact of extinction
since the end of pleistocene human activity continued to take toll
- today species disappearing at unprecedented rate
hunting in relation to extinction
continues to be a factor in extinction
habitat reduction
habitat loss is most important single caue of extinction
-direct result of human population growth
- creating need for building materials and living areas
rainforest
greatest threat is to countless unknown species in world's rainforests
-home to over 1/2 the worlds plants and animals
-1/2 of remains will be gone by 2022 at present rate of destruction
the present crisis of our cultural heritage
few people are aware of serious environmental problems
- even fewer are will to do anything about it
overpopulation
the major single challenge facing humanity
-population growth tied to other problems
population growth
10,000 yrs ago only around 5million people
- it is presently 6 billion people
population growth began to ****** at the end of 20th century
it began to decrease
-average number of children from 4.3 to 2.6 in 2000
-there has been a decrease in family size world wide
while average births per woman have declined...
huge populaton growth in next century
-approximately half of people in developing world are less than 15
agricultural lands
dramatic fluctuations weather patterns
-changes in temperature and rainfall
-loss of agricultural lands
disease
spread of mosquito-born disease
-warmer temp increased range or insect and vertebrate vectors
prevention of disease
only chance of reversing trends is by sacrifice
-much responsibility on industrialized west
famly planning
population containment; family planning to halt population expansion
U.S. produces ***** percent of carbon dioxide
25-30 percent of carbon dioxide
ecological footprints
the average amount of land and sea required for each person to support his or her lifestyle
use of fewer resources
we need to make dramatic sacrifices now;
must use less resources