Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

304 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Online, a real-time event involving two persons who are engaging in sexual talk for the purpose of sexual pleasure
sexual interests
our incitements or inclinations to act sexually
sexual orientation
the pattern of sexual and emotional attraction based on the gender of one's partner
emotional and sexual attraction between men and women
emotional and sexual attraction between persons of the same sex
emotional and sexual attraction to both males and females
people whose genitals and/or identities as men or women are discordant
in certain regions, a man who assumes female dress, gender role, and status
normal sexual behavior
behavior that conforms to a group's average or median patterns of behavior
sexual variation
sexual variety and diversity
sex information/advice genre
transmits information and norms, rather than images, about sexuality to a mass audience both to inform and entertain in a simplified manner
the observation of things as they exist in reality as opposed to our feelings or beliefs about them
value judgments
evaluations based on moral or ethical standards rather than objective ones
cultural relativity
anthropological concept involving the positive or negative appropriateness of any custom or activity that must be evaluated in terms of how it fits in with the culture as a whole
unsubstantiated belief or conclusion about what seems to be true according to our thoughts
a personal leaning or inclination
a set of simplistic, rigidly held, overgeneralized beliefs about an individual, a group of people, an idea, and so on
a way in which we organize our knowledge in our thought processes
a predisposition a person has to act, think, or feel in certain ways
casual sex
sexual interaction with a partner where no other interaction is present
an error in reasoning that affects our understanding of a subject
egocentric fallacy
the mistaken belief that our own personal experience and values generally are held by others
ethnocentric fallacy/ethnocentrism
the belief that our own ethnic group, nation, or culture is innately superior to others
ethnic affiliation or identity
ethnic group
a group of people distinct from other groups because of cultural characteristics, such as language, religion, or customs, that are transmitted from one generation to the next
scientific method
the method by which hypothesis is formed from impartially garthered data and tested empirically
drawing a general conclusion from specific facts
informed consent
full disclosure to an individual of the purpose, potential risks, and benefits of participating in a research project
protection from harm
each research participant is entitled to this
random sample
a sample collected in an unbiased way, with the selection of each member of the sample based solely on chance
representative sample
a small group representing the larger group in terms of age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, orientation, and so on
biased sample
samples not representative of the larger group
come out
puplicly identifying oneself as gay, lesbian, or bisexual
clinical research
the in-depth examination of an individual or group that comes to a psychiatrist, psychologist, or social worker for assistance with psychological or medical problems or disorders
pathological behavior
unhealthy or diseased behavior
survey research
a method that uses questionnaires or interviews to gather information
sexual diary
a written record of past sexual behaviors
observational research
a method by which a researcher unobtrusively observes and makes systematic notes about people's behavior without trying to manipulate it
participant observation
the researcher participates in the behavior she or he is studying
experimental research
the systematic manipulation of individuals or the environment to learn the effects of such manipulation on behavior
aspects or factors that can be manipulated in experiments
independent variable
factors that can be manipulated or changed by the experimentor
dependent variables
factors that are likely to be affected by the changes in the independent variable
correlational studies
measure two or more naturally occurring variables to determine their relationship to each other
devices attached to the genitals to measure physiological response
strain gauge
a device resembling a rubber band used to measure physiological genital response in men
psychological disorders characterized by anxiety or tension, plaguing the patients of Sigmund Freud
a psychological mechanism that kept people from becoming aware of hidden memories and motives because they aroused guilt, prevents such knowledge
a psychological system that ascribes behavior to unconcious desires
oral stage
lasting from birth to age 1, the infant's eroticism is focused on the mouth
anal stage
between ages 1 and 3, children's sexual activity is autoerotic, but pleasure area shifts to the anus
phallic stage
age 3 through 5, exhibit interest in the genitals
latency stage
enter at age 6, sexual impulses are no longer active
genital stage
at puberty, become interested in genital sexual activities, especially sexual intercourse
Oedipal complex
a boy develops sexual desires for his mother and fears his father, leads to castration anxiety
castration anxiety
the boy's belief that the father will cut off his penis because of jealousy
electra complex
the girl desiring her father will fear her mother
penis envy
upon discovering that she does not have a penis, the girl feels deprived
a movement that involves women and men working together for equality
social construction
the development of social categories, such as masculinity, femininity, heterosexuality, homosexuality, by society
control group
a group that is not being treated or experimented on
socioeconomic status
a person's ranking in society based on a combination of occupational, educational, and income levels
cultural equivalency perspective
the view that the attitudes, values, and behaviors of one ethnic group are similar to those of another ethnic group
a positive concept, celebrating the values of courage, strength, generosity, politeness and respect for others
the process of adaptation of an ethnic group to the values, attitudes, and behaviors of the dominant culture
a commitment to family and family members
sexual and reproductive organs of both men and women
the external female genitals consisting of the mons pubis, the clitoris, the labia majora, and the labia minora
mons pubis/mons veneris
the pad of fatty tissue that covers the area of the pubic bone about 6 inches below the navel
the female sex organ and center of sexual arousal
clitoral hood
a fold of skin that covers the glans when the clitoris is not engorged
glans clitoris
the tip of the shaft of the clitoris that contains a high concentration of nerve endings
the internal shaft of the clitoris that divides into two branches, which are the tips of erectile tissue that attach to the pelvic bone
corpora cavernosa
contained in the crura, hollow chambers that fill with blood and swell during arousal
labia majora
two folds of spongy flesh extending from the mons pubis and enclosing the labia minora, clitoris, urethral opening, and vaginal entrance
labia minora
smaller folds within the labia majora that meet above the clitoris to form the clitoral hood
the area enclosed by the labia minora
Bartholin's gland
two small ducts located at the vaginal opening, they secrete a small amount of moisture during sexual arousal
the flexible, muscular structure that extends 3-5 inches back and upward from the vaginal opening, also known as the birth canal
the lower third of the vagina where the majority of sensory nerve endings are concentrated
a thin membrane that partially covers the introitus prior to first intercourse
Granfenburg spot (G-spot)
an area inside the body and surrounding the urethra, reported to be an erotically sensitive area
a hollow, thick-walled, muscular organ held in the pelvic cavity by a number of flexible ligaments and supported by several muscles
the tapered end of the uterus that acts as the entrance
the inner lining of the uterine walls filled with tiny blood vessels
the cervical opening
a gonad that contains the sex cells for reproduction
an organ taht produces gametes
the sex cells containing the genetic material necessary for reproduction
female gametes, egg/cell
oocytes or eggs
the release of an oocyte
ovarian follicles
a saclike structure where the immature oocytes are embedded
corpus luteum
the ruptured follicle after the oocyte emerges
fallopian tubes
located at the top of the uterus on either side, 4 inches long, extend to the ovaries, but are not attached
the funnel shaped end of the fallopian tubes
the fingerlike structures that fan out from the infundibulum which drape over the ovary but don't actually touch it
tiny, hairlike, structures on the fimbriae and ampulla, become active during ovulation
the widened part of the tube in which fertilization normally occurs
the tube through which urine passes
urethral opening/meatus
the opening out which urine passes, located between the clitoris and the vaginal opening
a diamond-shaped region with soft tissue that covers the muscles and ligaments on the pelvic floor
pevlic floor
the underside of the pelvic area extending from the top of the pubic bone to the anus
milk production
mammary gland
compose of fatty tissue and 15-25 lobes that radiate around a central protruding nipple
small glands within the lobes that begin producing milk when signaled to by hormones
the area of darkened skin around the nipple
sex drive or interest
hormones that act directly on the gonads
female hormone which affects the maturation of the reproductive organs, menstruation, and pregnancy
a female hormone which helps to mainatain the uterine lining until menstruation occurs
the completion of the process of egg beginning that is triggered at puberty
ovarian cycle
the process of egg release which begins at puberty and continues until menopause
gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
released from the hypothalamus and begins to stimulate the pituitary gland to release FSH and LH
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
along with LH, initiates the follicular phase
luteinizing hormone (LH)
along with FSH, initiates the follicular phase
follicular phase
the first 10 days in which 10 to 20 ovarian follicles begin to grow (98-99% of cases, only one of the follicles will mature completely during this period)
ovulatory phase
begins about day 11 of the cycle and culminates with ovulation at about day 14, the primary oocyte undergoes cell division and becomes ready for ovulation
a sharp twinge experienced by some women on one side of the lower abdomen during ovulation
luteal phase
typically lasts from day 14 through day 28 of the ovarian cycle, ovarian hormone levels at their lowest, GnRH is released and FSH and LH levels begin to rise
toxic shock syndrome
a bacterial infection that can occur in menstruating women and cause a person to go into shock
menstrual cycle
a cycle divided into three phases; menstrual, proliterative, and secretory
menstrual phase
the shedding of the endometrial tissue, along with mucus, other cervical and vaginal secretions, and a small amount of blood (2-5 ounces per cycle), expelled through the vagina
the menstrual flow, occurs over a period of 3-5 days
a females first menstrual cycle
proliferative phase
lasts about 9 days, the endometrium thickens in response to increase estrogen, mucus membranes of cervix create clear thin membrane that facilitates the passage of sperm
secretory phase
the endometrium begins to prepare for the arrival of a fertilized ovum, glands in uterus enlarge and secrete glycogen, cervical mucus thickens to seal off uterus in event of a pregnancy, if no fertilization happens: endometrial cells begin to die
menstrual synchrony
the phenomenon of women who live or work together often report developing similarly timed menstrual cycles, appears to be related to sense of smell(pheromones)
premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
a collection of physical, emotional and psychological symptoms that many women experience 7-14 days before their menstrual cycle
premenstrual dysphoric disorder
some doctors equate this to PMS, used when a stringent definition of PMS is used and women don't have symptoms severe enough to be labeled PMS
heavy or prolonged bleeding during the menstrual cycle
cramps before or during a menstrual cycle that are persistant, aching and serious pain sufficient to limit a woman's activities
high levels of this fatty-acid base that is found throughout the body causes dysmennorrhea
when women do not menstruate for reasons other than aging
sexual response cycles
the sequence of changes and patterns that take place in the body during sexual arousal
Masters and Johnson's four-phase model of sexual response
identifies the significant stages of response as excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
Kaplan's triphasic model of sexual response
includes the desire, excitement, and orgasm phases
Loulan's sexual response model
incorporates both the biological and affective components in to a six-stage cycle
limbic system
consists of several separate parts, is invovled with emotions and feelings
erogenous zones
certain areas of the skin that are highly sensitive to the touch
a chemical substance that is secreted into the air by many kinds of animals, appears to arouse the libido
in men, produced mainly in the testses
in women, produced in the adrenal glands and the ovaries
a hormone more commonly associated with contractions during labor, may work synergistically with other sex hormones to produce muscle contractions during orgasm
the concentration of blood in body tissue
increase muscle tension accompanying the approach of orgasm
one of the first signs of sexual excitement in women which is the moistening of the vaginal walls
during sexual excitement, the inner two thirds of the vagina expands
sex flush
a darkening of the skin or rash that temporarily appears as a result of blood rushing to the surface during sexual excitement
orgasmic platform
the thickening of the vaginal walls which occurs in the plateau stage of the sexual response cycle
a peak sensation of intense pleasure that creates an altered state of consciousness and is accompanied by involuntary, rhythmic uterine and anal contractions, myotonia, and a state of well-being and contentment
the organ through which both sperm and urine pass in males
attaches the penis within the pelvic cavity
the body of the penis that hangs free
glans penis
an enlarged head that is located at the end of the shaft
the rim at the base of the glans
a triangular area of sensitive skin on the underside of the penis
the sleevelike covering of the glans
the procedure of surgically removing the foreskin
a cheesy substance produced by several small glands beneath the foreskin
corpora cavernosa
the two columns of erectile tissue that extend along the front surface of the shaft of the penis
corpus spongiosum
the third parallel column that runs beneath the other two, also forms the glans
at the root of the penis, anchors the corpora cavernosa by muscle to the pubic bone
a tube that transports both urine and semen, runs from the bladder, through the spongy body, to the tip of the penis
urethral bulb
where the urethra expands and runs from the bladder
a pouch of skin that holds the two testicles, hangs loosely at the root of the penis
the male reproductive glands or gonads
spermatic cord
suspends each testicle, contains nerves, blood vessels and a vas deferens
seminiferous tubules
tiny, tightly compressed tubes 1-3 feet long, where sperm is produced
a comma-shaped structure consisting of a coiled tube about 20 feet long, where sperm finally mature
vas deferens
a tube about 18 inches long, extending into the abdominal cavity, over the bladder, and then downward
where the vas deferens widens into a flask shape
ejaculatory duct
what the vas deferens joins with in the prostate gland
seminal vesicles
two glands that secrete a fluid that makes up about 60% of the seminal fluid
prostate gland
located just below the bladder, produces about 30-35% of the seminal fluid in the ejaculated semen
Cowper's or bulbourethral glands
two pea-sized glands connected to the urethra by tiny ducts, secrete a thick clear mucus prior to ejaculation, may help buffer the acidity within the urethra for the sperm
a steriod hormone synthesized from cholesterol
secondary sex characteristics
the changes to parts of the body other than the genitals that indicate sexual maturity
testosterone replacement therapy
used to reverse some of the signs of aginging in men, carries a lot of risks
the production of sperm, an ongoing process
the male gametes
semen or seminal fluid
the ejaculated liquid that contains sperm
homologous structure
the masculine structures are developed from the same cells in a developing female fetus
signal of male arousal, the blood vessels expand, increasing the volume of blood, especially in the corpora cavernosa
the process by which semen is forcefully expelled from the man's body
contractions of the walls of the tail portion of the epididymis, which sends the sperm into the vas deferens
ejaculatory inevitability
the point at which ejaculation must occur even if stimulation ceases
rapid rhythmic contractions of the urethra, the prostate and the muscles at the base of the penis
retrograde ejaculation
the "backward" expulsion of semen into the bladder rather than out of the urethral opening, may be temporary, but if it persists, man should seek medical treatment
refractory period
a period following an ejaculation during which men are not capable of having an ejaculation again
genetic sex
one's chromosomal and hormonal sex characterstics (XX, XY, etc)
anatomical sex
physical sex: gonads, uterus, vulva, vagina, penis, and so on
assigned gender
the gender given by others, usually at birth
gender identity
the gender a person believes him or herself to be
gender roles
the attitudes, behaviors, rights and responsiblities that particular cultural groups associate with each sex
gender-role stereotype
a rigidly held, oversimplified, and overgeneralized belief about how each gender should behave
gender-role attitude
refers to the beliefs a person has about him or herself and others regarding appropriate male and female personality traits and activities
gender-role behavior
the actual activities or behaviors a person engages in as a female or a male
gender presentation
either through bodily habits or personality, is what is perceived by others
gender variation
deviations from the supposed societal gender norm
task oriented (stereotypical masculine trait)
emotion-oriented (stereotypical feminine trait)
discrimination against people based on their sex rather than their individual merits
gender theory
the theory where a society may be best understood by how it is organized according to gender
cognitive social learning theory
derived from behavioral psychology, emphasizes observable events and their consequences, rather than internal feelings and drives
cognitive development theory
focuses on children's active interpretation of the messages they receive from the environment
queer theories
identifies sexuality as a system that can not be understood as gender neutral or by the actions of heterosexual females and females
sexual double standards
different standards of behavior and permissiveness
ones age-mates
gender schema
the cognitive organizations of the world according to gender
the acts, rules, and expectations associated with a particular role
flexibility in gender roles and the unique combination of instrumental and expressive traits as influenced by individual differences, situations and stages in the life cycle
manifested by a variety of conditions under which a person is born with something other than the standard male or female anatomy
Turner Syndrome
females that are not XX or XY, appear normal externally but they have no ovaries
Klinefelter Syndrome
males with one extra X chromosome, generally masculine appearance but also has some female traits
Androgen-insensitivity syndrome/testicular feminization
genetic, inherited condition passed through the X chromosomes, genetic male born with testes, but because of body's inability to absorb testosterone, estrogen influence prevails, generally assigned female gender status at birth
congenital adrenal hyperplasia
a genetic female with ovaries and a vagina developes externally as a male, a result of malfunctioning adrenal glands
DHT deficiency
have internal male organs but a clitoris-like penis, undescended testes, a labia-like scrotum, and a closed vaginal cavity, at puberty normal male development occurs
the opening of the penis is located somewhere on the underside, glans, or shaft or at the junction of the scrotum, foreskin may form a hood over the top of the glans and there may be a twist in the shaft
gender identity disorder (GID)
strong and persistant cross-gender identification and persistant discomfort about one's assigned sex
has no desire to alter his or her genitals to live in society in a role with which he or she feels comfortable
psychosexual development
the psychological aspects of sexuality
the social and psychological state that occurs between the beginning of puberty and acceptance into full adulthood
nocturnal emission
appearance of semen during sleep ("wet dreams")
feelings of sexual attraction to members of the same sex--almost always precedes lesbian or gay activity by several years
internalized homophobia
a set of negative attitudes and affects towards homosexuality in other persons and toward same-sex attractions in oneself
people of opposite sex sharing living spaces
domestic partnership
cohabitaion in a comitted relationship
serial monogamy
a succession of marriages, whereby the average marriage now lasts aproximately 7 years
abstentation from sexual activity--not necessarily a symptom of a problem or a disorder
the absence of traditional sexual orientation in which there is little or no sexual attraction to males or females
obsessive and possessive love, slightest sign of affection brings ecstacy for a short while
playful love, love is a game rather than a deep involvement
natural affection, love between long term companions, usually begins with friendship and deepens into love
brotherly love, abstract and ideal
practical love, businesslike, use logic to search for a partner
triangular theory of love
Robert Sternberg, emphasizes the dynamic quality of love relationships, points on triangle are liking, infatuation, and empty love
intimacy only
passion only
romantic love
intimacy and passion
companionate love
intimacy and commitment
fatuous love
passion and commitment
consummate love
intimacy, passion and commitment
empty love
decision/commitment only
absence of commitment, passion or intimacy
a close, enduring emotional bond that finds its roots in infancy
secure attachment
adults who find it relatively easy to get close to other people
anxious/ambivalent attachments
adults believed that other people did not get close as they themselves wanted, worry that partners didn't really love them or would leave them
avoidant attachments
adults who felt discomfort in being close to other people, distrustful and fearful of being dependent
unrequited love
love that is not returned
open marriage
parnters mutually agree to allow sexual contact with others
terms used to describe people in open marriages
intimate love
the kind of love that lasts
an important component of intimate love, reflects a determination to continue a relationship or marriage in the face of bad times as well as good
involves the making of another person's needs as important as your own
the revelation of personal information that others would not ordinarily know because of its riskiness
a transactional process by which we use symbols, such as words, gestures, movements, to establish human contact, exchange information, and reinforce or change our own attitudes and behaviors and those of others
a person's posistion or ranking in a group--is important
nearness in physical space and time, where we sit or stand in relation to another person signifies a level of intimacy
halo effect
the assumption that attractive or charismatic people also possess more desirable social characteristics
the process through wich we not only reveal ourselves to others but also find out who we are
a belief in the reliability and integrity of a person
the ongoing process of restating, checking the accuracy of, questioning, and clarifying messages
agreement as a gift
when one partner freely agrees with the other as a gift
in a relationship when partners want not the best for themselves, but the most equitable deal for both partners
when differences can't be resolved, in a sound relationship the differences can be absorbed without undermining the basic ties
sexual strategies theory
a theoretical explanation for human mating that addresses gender differences in short-term and long-term heterosexual relationships from an evolutionary mating perspective
sexual scripts
plans that organize and give direction to our sexual behavior
consists of sexual activities that involve only the self
nocturnal orgasm/emission
orgasms in men and women that occur during sleep
rubbing, caressing or otherwise stimulating the genitals
nongenital touching and caressing, neither partner tries to sexually stimulate the other, simply explore, discovering how their bodies respond to touching
pressing together of bodies with genital thrusting, "dry humping"
interfemoral intercourse
when two women place their pelvic areas together to provied mutual clitoral stimulation, also rubbing the penis between the thighs of a partner
oral-genital sex
cunnilingus and fellatio, erotic stimulation of either sexes genitalia with the partner's mouth and tongue
when a man provides oral stimulation to their own penis
sexual intercourse
penile-vaginal intercourse or insertion, sometimes used to describe penile-anal insertion as well
tantric sex
a type of sexual intimacy based on Eastern religious beliefs beginning in India around 5000 BCE, involves the couple sharing energies
the licking of the anal region, also known as "rimming" or "tossing salad"
anal intercourse
male's inserting of his erect penis into his partner's anus
sexual variations
refers to those behaviors that are not statistically typical of American sexual behaviors
atypical sexual behavior
alternate term for sexual variation
a mental disorder characterized by recurrent intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or sexual behaviors lasting at least 6 mos and involving (1)non-human ojects (2)the suffereing or humiliation of oneself or one's partner, or (3)children or other nonconsenting people
exposing one's genitals to an unsuspecting person
using a nonliving object
touching or rubbing one's genitals against a nonconsenting person
having sexual activity with a prepubescent child
sexual masochism
being humiliated, beaten, bound, or otherwise made to suffer
sexual sadism
inflicting psychological or phsyical suffering
transvestic fetishism
observing an unsuspecting person who is disrobing or having sex
telephone scatologia
making obscene phone calls
having sexual activity with corpses
having sexual activity with animals (bestiality)
being sexually aroused by feces
being sexually aroused in response to enemas
being sexually aroused in response to urine
a pejorative term referring to "abnormal or excessive" sexual desire in a woman and is usually applied to sexually active single women, often defined morally rather than scientifically
referring to "abnormal" or "uncontrollable" sexual desire in men, less common than nymphomania because men are expected to be more sexual than women
domination and submission (D/S) and sadomasochism (S&M)
consensual acting out of sexual scenes in which one person dominates and the other submits
bondage and discipline(B&D)
the most widely known form of S&M, practice in which a person is bound with scarves, leather straps, underwear, handcuffs, chains or other such devices while another stimulates or engages in light to moderate discipline activites such as spanking or whipping
a woman specializing in disciplining a person
exclusive attraction to body parts is known as partialism
wearing the clothing of the other sex, usually for sexual arousal, people considered psychologically disordered are diagnosed as having transvestic fetishism
autoerotic asphyxia
links strangulation with masturbation, seek to heighten their masturbatory arousal and orgasm by cutting of the oxygen supply to the brain