Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/30

Click to flip

30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Prenatal Period
the time from conception to birth
Hormones
Chemical substances secreted by the endocrine glands into the bloodstream
Testosterone
A hormone secreted by the testes in the male
Androgens
The group of male sex hormones, one of which is testosterone
Estrogens
Group of female sex hormones
Progesterone
A female sex hormone secreted by the ovaries
Pituitary Gland
A small endocrine gland located on the lower side of the brain below the hypothalamus; regulates levels of sex hormones (master gland); in females it prduces prolactin (stimulates secretion of milk by mammary glands) and oxytocin (stimulates ejection of milk from nipples)
Hypothalamus
Small region of the brain that is important in regulating many body functions, including functions of sex hormones
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Hormone secreted by the pituitary, stimulates follicle development in females and sperm production in males
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
A hormone secreted by the pituitary; it regulates estrogen secretion and ovum development in the female and testosterone production in the male
GnRH (gonadotropin - releasing hormone)
hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that regulates the pituitary's secretion of gonad-simulating hormones
HPG Axis
Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonad Axis; the negative feedback loop that regulates sex-hormone production
Inhibin
Substance secreted by the testes/ovaries which regulates FSH levels (possbile future use in male contraceptives)
Klinefelter's Syndrome
XXY chromosomes - abnormal testes, no sperm, low testosterone
SRY
stands for sex-determining region, Y Chromosome...if present, testes form
Mullerian Ducts
Ducts found in both male and female fetuses; in males they degenerate and in females they develop into the fallopian tubes, the uterus, and the upper part of the vagina
Wolffian Ducts
Ducts found in both male and female fetuses; in females they degenerate and in males they develop into the epididymis, the vas deferens and the ejaculatory ducts; Tubercle becomes the glans penis, the folds form the shaft of the penis, and the swelling develops into the scrotum
Cryptorchidism
Undescended testes; the condition in which the testes do not descend to the scrotum as they should during prenatal development
homologous organs
organs in the male and female that develop from the same embryonic tissue
Analogous Organs
Organs in the male and female that have similar functions
Biological Variables of Gender
Chromosomal Gender, Prenatal Gender, Gonadal Gender, Internal Organs, External Genital Appearance, Pubertal hormonal Gender
Pshycological Variables
Assigned Gender, Gender Identitiy
intersex
and individual who has a mixture of male and female reproductive structures, so that it is not clear at birth whether the individual is a male or a female
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)
A condition in which a genetic female produces abnormal levels of androgens prenatally and therefore has male-appearing genitals at birth
Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome
Genetic Condition in which the body is unresponsice to androgens so a genetic male may be born with a female-appearing body
Puberty
Time when there is sudden enlardement and maturation of the gonads, other genitalia and secondary sex characteristcs, so that the individual becomes capable of reproduction
Menarche
First Menstration
Leptin
Protein produced in the body that is related to the onset of puberty
Andrenal Glands
Endrocrine glands located just above the kidneys; in the female they are major producers of androgens
Adrenarche
A time of incresed secretion of adrenal androgens usually just before age eight