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21 Cards in this Set

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Population
A group of people a researcher waants to study and make inferences about
Sample
A part of a population
Random Sample
An excellent method of sampling in research, in which each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample
Probability sampling
An excellent method of sampling in research, in which each member of the pipulation has a known probability of being included in the sample
Problem of refusal or nonresponce
The problem that some people will refuse to participate in a sex survey, thus making it difficult to have a random sample
Volunteer bias
A bias in the results of sex serveys that arises when some people refuse to participate, so that those who are in the sample are volunteers who may in some ways differ from those who refuse to participate
Purposeful ditortion
purposely giving false information in a survey
Test-retest reliability
a method for testing whether self-reports are reliable or accurate; participants are interviewed and then interviewed a second time sometime later to determine whether their answers are the same both times
Computer assisted self interview
a method of data collection in which the respondent fills out questionnaires on a computer. headphones and a soundtrack can be added for young children and poor readers
informed consent
an ethical principle in research, in which people have a right to be informed, before participating, of what they will be asked to do in the research
cost-benefit approach
an aproach to analyzing the ethics of a research study, based on weighing the costs of the research against the benefits of the research
content analysis
a set of procefures used to make valid infences about text
intercoder reliability
in content analysis, the correlation or percent of agreement between two coders independently rating the same texts
participant-observer technique
a research method in which the scientists becomes part of the community to be studied and makes observations from inside the community
correlational study
a study in which the researcher does not manipulate variables but rather studies fnaturally occuting correlations among variables
experiment
a type of research study in which one variable is manipulated by the experimenter while all other factors are held constant; the research can then study the effects of the independent cariable on some measured variable; the researcher is permitted to make causal inferences about the effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable
mean
the average of resondents scores
median
the middle score
incidence
the percentage of people giving a particular response
frequency
how often a person does something
correlation
a number that measures the relationshop between two variables