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80 Cards in this Set

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Zygote
A fertilized ovum.
Amniocentesis
A procedure for drawing off and examining fetal cells in the amniotic fluid to determine whether various disorders are present in the fetus.
Down Syndrome
A chromosomal abnormality that leads to mental retardation and is caused by an extra chromosome on the 21 pair.
Spontaneous Abortion
The sudden, involuntary expulsion of the embryo or fetus from the uterus before it is capable of independent life.
Zona Pellucida
A gelatinous layer that surrounds an ovum.
Hyaluronidase
An enzyme that briefly thins the zona pellucida, enabling one sperm to penetrate.
Infertility
Inability to conceive a child.
Motility
Self-propulsion. A measure of the viability of sperm cells.
Autoimmune Response
The production of antibodies that attack naturally occuring substances that are (incorrectly) recognized as being foreign or harmful.
Artificial Insemination
The introduction of sperm into the reproductive tract through means other than sexual intercourse.
Endometriosis
An abnormal condition in which endometrial tissue is sloughed off into the abdominal cavity rather than out of the body during menstruation. The condition is characterized by abdominal pain and may cause infertility.
Laparoscopy
A medical procedure in which a long, narrow tube (laparoscope) is inserted through an incision in the navel, permitting the visual inspection of organs in the pelvic cavity.
Rubin Test
A test in which carbon dioxide gas is blown through the cervix and its progress through the reproductive tract is followed to determine whether the fallopian tubes are blocked.
Hysterosalpingogram
A test in which a dye is injected into the reproductive tract and its progress is tracked by X-rays to determine whether the fallopian tubes are blocked.
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
A method of conception in which mature ova are surgically removed from an ovary and placed in a laboratory dish along with sperm.
Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT)
A method of conception in which sperm and ova are inserted into a fallopian tube to encourage conception.
Zygot Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT)
A method of conception in which an ovum is fertilized in a laboratory dish and then placed in a fallopian tube.
Donor IVF
A variation of in vitro fertilization in which the ovum is taken from one woman, fertilized, and then injected into the uterus or fallopian tube of another woman.
Embryonic Transfer
A method of conception in which a woman volunteer is artificially inseminated by the male partner of the intended mother, after which the embryo is removed from the volunteer and inserted within the uterus of the intended mother.
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
A method of conception in which a single sperm is injected directly into an ovum.
Surrogate Mother
A woman who is impregnated, through artificial insemination, with the sperm of a prospective father, carries the embryo and fetus to term, and then gives the child to the prospective parents.
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)
A hormone produced by women shortly after conception, which stimulates the corpus luteum to continue to produce progesterone. The presence of HCG in a woman's urine indicates that she is pregnant.
Hegar's Sign
Softness of a section of the uterus between the uterine body and the cervix, which indicates that a woman is pregnant.
Morning Sickness
Symptoms of pregnancy, including nausea, aversions to specific foods, and vomiting.
Miscarriage
A spontaneous abortion.
Sympathetic Pregnancy
The experiencing of a number of signs of pregnancy by the father.
Germinal Stage
The period of prenatal development before implantation in the uterus.
Period of the Ovum
Germinal stage.
Blastocyst
A stage within the germinal stage of prenatal development, at which the embryo is a sphere of cells surrounding a cavity of fluid.
Embryonic Disk
The platelike inner part of the blastocyst, which differentiates into the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm of the embryo.
Trophoblast
The outer part of the blastocyst, from which the amniotic sac, placenta, and umbilical cord develop.
Embryonic Stage
The stage of prenatal development that lasts from implantation through the eighth week and is characterized by differentiation of the major organ systems.
Cephalocaudal
From the head downward.
Proximodistal
From the central axis of the body outwad.
Ectoderm
The outermost cell layer of the newly formed embryo, from which the skin and nervous system develop.
Neural Tube
A hollow area in the blastocyst from which the nervous system will develop.
Endoderm
The inner layer of the newly formed embryo, from which the lungs and digestive system develop.
Mesoderm
The central layer of the embryo, from which the bones and muscles develop.
Amniotic Sac
The sac containing the fetus.
Amniotic Fluid
Fluid within the amniotic sac that suspends and protects the fetus.
Placenta
An organ connected to the fetus by the umbilical cord. The placenta serves as a relay station between mother and fetus, allowing the exchange of nutrients and wastes.
Umbilical Cord
A tube that connects the fetus to the placenta.
Age of Viability
The age at which a fetus can sustain independent life.
Cephalic Presentation
Emergence of the baby head first from the womb.
Breech Presentation
Emergence of the baby feet first from the womb.
Teratogens
Environmental influences or agents that can damage an embryo or fetus.
Critical Period of Vulnerability
A period of time during which an embryo or fetus is vulnerable to the effects of a teratogen.
Rubella
A viral infection that can cause mental retardation and heart disease in an embryo. Also called German measles.
Syphilis
A sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacterial infection.
Stillbirth
The birth of a dead fetus.
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
A sexually transmitted disease that destroys white blood cells in the immune system, leaving the body vulnerable to various "opportunistic" diseases.
Toxemia
A life-threatening condition that is characterized by high blood pressure.
Ectopic Pregnancy
A pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum becomes implanted somewhere other than in the uterus.
Rh Incompatibility
A condition in which antibodies produced by a pregnant woman are trnasmitted to the fetus and may cause brain damage or death.
DES (Diethylstilbestrol)
An estrogen that was once given to women at risk for miscarriage to help maintain pregnancy.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
A cluster of symptoms caused by maternal drinking, in which the child shows developmental lags and characteristic facial features such as an underdeveloped upper jaw, flattened nose, and widely spaced eyes.
Recessive Trait
A trait that is not expressed when the gene or genes involved have been paired with dominant genes. Recessive traits are transmitted to future generations, however, and are expressed if they are paired with other recessive genes.
Braxton-Hicks Contractions
So-called false labor contractions that are relatively painless.
Prostaglandins
Uterine hormones that stimulate uterine contractions.
Oxytocin
A pituitary hormone that stimulates uterine contractions.
Efface
To become thin.
Dilate
To open or widen.
Transition
The process during which the cervix becomes nearly fully dilated and the head of the fetus begins to move into the birth canal.
Episiotomy
A surgical incision in the perineum that widens the birth canal, preventing random tearing during childbirth.
Perineum
The area between the vulva and the anus.
General Anesthesia
The use of drugs to put people to sleep and eliminate pain, as during childbirth.
Local Anesthesia
Anesthesia that eliminates pain in a specific area of the body, as during childbirth.
Natural Childbirth
A method of childbirth in which women use no anesthesia but are given other strategies for coping with discomfort and are educated about childbirth.
Lamaze Method
A childbirth method in which women learn about childbirth, learn to relax and to breathe in patterns that conserve energy and lessen pain, and have a coach (usually the father) present at childbirth. Also termed prepared childbirth.
Cesarean Section
A method of childbirth in which the fetus is delivered through a surgical incision in the abdomen.
Transverse Position
A crosswise birth position.
Anoxia
Oxygen deprivation.
Preterm
Born before 37 weeks of gestation.
Surfactants
Substances that prevent the walls of the airways from sticking together.
Repiratory Distress Syndrome
A cluster of breathing problems, including weak and irregular breathing, to which preterm babies are especially vulnerable.
Postpartum
Following birth.
Postpartum Depression
Persistent and severe mood changes during the postpartum period, involving feelings of despair and apathy and characterized by changes in appetite and sleep, low self-esteem, and difficulty concentrating.
Prolactin
A pituitary hormone that stimulates production of milk.
Lactation
Production of milk by the mammy glands.
Lochia
A reddish vaginal discharge that may persist for a month after delivery.