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69 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the three functions of fertilization?
46 chromosomes, sex choromosomes, new individual
What two things does the sperm provide to the new individual?
Nucleus with 23 chromosomes and X or Y sex chromosome
Germ cell transport in the female reproductive tract results from the action of ciliated epithelial cells. Are oocytes and sperm moved in the same direction?
After fertilization, what part of the transport system has to reverse directions?
Sperm transport
Cervical mucous has two effects on sperm transport. Most of the time it ___ sperm transport into the uterus. Near the time of ovulation, it ___ sperm transport.
inhibits, promotes
Sperm swimming can be divided into two forms, translation and hyperactivated. Which form moves the sperm form Point A to Point B? Which form occurs near the oocyte?
Translation, hyperactivated
What does sperm capacitization mean?
Changes in the spermatozoa that takes place in the uterus
Where does sperm capacitization typically occur?
How long can an unfertilized oocyte survive in the female reproductive tract?
~24 hours
How long can an oocyte survive in the ovary?
From birth to last menstration
How long can sperm survive in the female reproductive tract?
~24 hours
What kind of proteins are stored in the sperm acrosome?
Digestive enzymes
Before reaching the oocyte membrane, what two outer layers does the sperm have to penetrate?
Cumulus cells, zona pellucida
What kind of proteins enable sperm to reach the oocyte cell membrane?
Fertilin Beta
When the sperm contacts the oocyte membrane, a series of changes in the membrane and cytoplasm are rapidy initiated. What kind of receptor would mediate these rapis changes - nuclear or membrane?
What is the rapid block to polyspermy?
Calcium ion depolarization
What is the slow block to polyspermy?
Cortical granule reaction
Fertilization is initiated when the sperm contacts the oocyte. About how long does it take to complete the process?
10-15 minutes
Approximately how many sperm reach the site of fertilization in the uterine tube?
200 sperm
Which meiotic division is stimulated by fertilization, I or II?
Meiosis II
The initial cell divisions following fertilization have a special name. What are they called?
What happens to cell since during very early embryonic developments?
Decrease in cell size
During the first 4-6 days, what keeps the embryo the same size?
Zona pellucida
During the first cleavages, the cells of the embryo are not attached. What hold the embryo together?
Zone pellucida
Until the embro hatches, it cannot implant. What does the hatche embryo escape?
Zona pellucida
What happens to embryo size immediately upon hatching?
Increase in size from dipolarization
What is the hollow ball of cells that is composed of two embryonic cell types.
What part of the blastocyst forms the placenta?
Outer trophoblast
What part of the blastocyst forms the body of the individual?
Inncer cell mass
during implantation the yolk sac forms uder the developing embryo. Since there is no yolk to transport to the embryo, other functiosn maintain this embryonic relic. Name two knids of cells that originate in the yolk sac.
Inncer cell mass, hypoblast
Name the glycoprotein hormone made by the placenta that signals pregnancy in humans
Name the sex steroid hormone that maintains pregnancy in humans.
What ovarian tissue is recued by hCG?
Corpus luteum
Implantation anywhere outside the uterus results in ___ pregnancy.
Name the fours tages of sexual differentiation
Chromosomal sex, gonadal sex determination, phenotypic sex, puberty
Why is sexual differentiation described as a progressive process?
Transitioned by hormonal secretions
When is chromosomal sex established in humans?
What is the first effect of chromosomal sex?
Genital ridges
The gonad and external genitalia are called biopotential, which means one tissue has two or more potential fates. Name the gene that determines the gate of the gonad. Name the formone that determines that fate of external genitalia.
Sex determining region of the Y chromosome.
The internal genitalia are two seperate embryological structures. One is recieved in men, the other is retain in women. In the abscence of gonadal secretions, which embryological structure is retained?
Female reproductive tract and genitalia
What does the testicular hormone anti-paramesonepthric duct hormone do?
Causes paramesonephric duct to degenerate
What embryological structure does the testicular hormone testosterone maintain?
Epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicle, prostate, bulbourethral gland
What happens to the metanephric kidney in the adult female?
Differentiates to uterine tubes, uterus, upper half of vagina
What happens to the embryonic mesonephric kidney in the female?
Degenerates due to lact of testosterone
Which chromosomes has more function?
Which chromosome has to be turned off so only one can function per cell?
What are the two kinds of cells that form the gonad?
Gonadalepitelial, germ cell
If XX primordial germ cells are taken up by an XY genital ridge, what kind of germ cell will they attempt to become
Name the three kinds of cells in the testis that are derived from the genital ridge
Leydig, serotoli, engothelial
Name the three kinds of cells in the ovary that are derived from the genital reidge
granulosa, theca, endotehlial
How do premordial cells get from their orgin to the genital ridge?
Migrate thru gut mesenteries
Primary sex cords become __ in the testis
Seminiferous tubules
Secondary sex cords become ___ in the testis
Leydig cells
Secondary sex cords become ___ in the ovaries
Granulosa cells
Name the glans that are derived from the mesonephric duct in the male
Prostate, seminiferous tubules, prostate, bulbourethra gland
Which gonad is carried externally in humans?
Name the three milestones of female puverty and tel what endocrine change is associated with each?
Adrenarche - androgens and pubes
Thelarche - breast
Menarche - menstration
Name the two milestones of male puberty and indicate the endocrine change associated with each
Adrenarche - androgens and pubes
Gonadarche - external genitalia
Pubc hair in both males and femalees results from hormones from what gland?
Adrenal glands
What two external markers do tanner stages measures pubertal development in females?
Breast and pubic hair
Name the two external markers used to measure tanner stages in males?
External genitalia and pubic hair
Which grows rapidly at puberty, the ovary or the uterus?
Which of the following grow rapidly at puberty in males, the testis, the seminal vesicle, or the prostate?
Testis, seminal vesicle and prostate
Puberty occurs earliers ages in men or women?
What factor is believed to account for earlier onset of puberty in industrilized countries over a 125 year period?
Improved diet
What hormone in peripheral blood is used to measure GnRH release patterns?
At what time of the day does the GnRH pulse-generator first become active during early puberty?
In sexually mature humans, at what time(s) of the day is the GnRH pulse generator active?
All day
What is mearche?
The beginning of menstration.