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25 Cards in this Set

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Definition: Morula
in the fallopian tubes after three divisions. It is a ball of cells that will enter uterus about 4 days after ovulation and becomes a blastocsyt
Definition: blastocyst
formed from morula. It’s hollow and has two parts (1. Inner cell mass and trophoblast)
Definition: inner cell mass
part of blastocyst composed of embryo itself and some extra embryonic tissue
Definition: trophoblast
part of blastocyst composed of extra embryonic tissue, including placenta
What are the functions of each extraembryonic membranes?
Yolk sac: connected to digestive tract of embryo, where priordial germ cells and first blood cells form, reptilian ancestry

Allantois: connected to urinary bladder, becomes part of placenta

Amniotic sac: surrounds and cushions embryo

Chorion: surrounds embryo and aminion, forms part of placenta, umbilical cord
What are the signs of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia?
- most likely if first pregnancy or hypertensive
- high blood pressure, protein in urine, swelling
- treat with bed rest
- cause still not certain
Name the main germ layers and list the parts of the body derived from each of them
1. ectoderm (blue outer layer): brian, sense organs, nervous system, outer skin

2. mesoderm (red middle): muscle, circulatory system, skelton, kidneys, reproductive system, deeper layers of skin

3. endoderm (yellow last): inner lining of digestive and respiratory systems
Explain how the neural tube forms.
ectoderm folds on "back" side of embryo. folds meet and form neural tube
Atria vs ventricles
artia (L&R): receive blood from veins, reparated frome achother by a wall

ventricles (L&R): receive blood from atria, pump out blood to arteries
The pulmonary vs systemic loops
pul: artiers carry deoxy blood from RV to lungs; veins carry ox blood to LA

sys: artiers carry ox blood from LV; viens carry deoxy blood to RA
What are the hormones secreted by the placenta and what are their functions?
1. hCG
2. Estrogen in pregnancy: breast, pit secrete prolactin, oxytocin
3. progesteron in pregnancy: maintains secretory phase, appetite, proper environment
4. relaxin: loosesn pelvic bones
What are general causes of abnormal chromosome numbers?
errors in meiosis, fertilization, and mitosis after fertilization
trophoblast secretes it

indicates pregnancy, prevents CL regression, productes proges and estra, menstrual suspended, prevents expulsion of embryo

declines 2 months and proges takes over
list stages of pregnancy
after fertilization (which DOES NOT establish pregnancy - implantation does)

conceptus (2 weeks)

embryonic (3-8 weeks)

fetal (9 weeks and on)
fetal stage vs embryonic stage
fetal: growth and maturation (9 and on weeks)

embry: tissues and organs formed (3-8 weeks)
what does the nueral tube become?
brian and spinal cord (nerves grow out of organs ->CNS)
what does the remainder of ectoderm become?
skin and sense organs
immediate causes of labor
oxytocin: uterus contracts
prostaglandins: uterus contracts, cervix softens
List labor stages and sub stages
1. effacent and dilation (a. early b. active c. transition)

2. expulsion

3. placental

4. recovery
Effacement and dilation stage of labor
thinning, mouth of cervix opens - hours to a day

a. early - 4cm cervix
contractions 5-20 min apart
mucous plug exprelled
water breaks
6-12 hours

b. active: 4-8cm
contractions 2-5 min apart
4-8 hours

c. transition: 8-10cm
fetus decends into pelvic cavity
not yet time to push
Expulsion stage of labor
1/2-1 hour
episiotomy (cut tissue)
mother pushes
baby slides out (um is cut and medicine on babys eyes)
Placental stage of labor
15-30 min
some blood loss
Recovery stage of labor
continued contractions to reduce size of uterus
2-3 hours
Adult circulatory system flow
Lungs -> ox blood enters LA --> LV --> arteries --> Body --> (deoxy) viens --> RA --> RV --> arteries --> Lungs
fetus circulatory system flow
LV --> arteries --> SPLIT body / placent --> REJOIN viens --> RA --> RV or LA --> RV to lungs / LA to LV

all mixed blood except placenta which is oxy and body where its deoxy