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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
draw out throxine pathway
see endocrinology
where is insulin made and where does it go to.
insulin made by beta cells in pancrease -- it travels to muscles, liver, and adipose tissue
where is glucagon produced and where does it go
glucagon is produced by the alpha cells in the pancrease and it travels to the liver
what two processes does glucagon promote
glycogenolysis- breakdown glycogen and gluconeogenesis - make glucose from other sources
what are the two main things that determine the amount of muscle tension
1- number/ kind of motor units
2- frequency of action potentials
what is a comparison to an auxotonic type of muscle contraction? Also, in this type of contraction as muscle length decreases tension ______.
BOW/ ARROW; increases
What type of contraciton is characterized when muscle length decreases tension decreases.
____ is a ancrease in the number of muscle cells?
what is the starting compound for steroids and where does it originate?
cholesterol-- in the liver
_____ is a substance that is secreated via a ductless gland into the blood and binds with target cell receptors.
what are the advantages of having a multi level (long level) regulation
back-up / fine tuning
what is tyrisine (aa) convereted into?
catecholamines- (dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine)
what hormone is trytophan convereted into and where in brain does this happen
melatonin in the pineal gland
what are the three major classes of hormones
1. amine hormones, peptide hormones, and steroids
Amine hormones are all derived from what amino acid
what is the largest class of hormones
where is the breakdown site for proteinaceous hormones
within the target cell
what cells make glucagon
alpha cells of pancrease
what is the name for the structure that connects the hypothalmus to pituitary
what two hormones are stored in posterior pituitary
vasopressin (ADH) and oxytocin
what affect does vasopressin have in the kidneys
It causes less water to be excreted in uring so that BP is higher
what 2 ways does ADH raise bp?
by causing less water to be excreted and by constricting blood vessels
what all hormones are produced by anterior pituitary
FLAT PEG - FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, Prolactin, GH
how do adrogens promote growth?
they up regulate the GH receptors
what is gluconeogenesis
formation of glucose from non glucose sources: pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, or amino acids
what are the secondary hormones besides GH that contributes to growth
thyroxine, insulin, sex hormones
what is the source of DHEA in the female
the adrenal cortex
how is GH like insulin
it cuases cell to uptake a.a and to promotes protein synthesis
How is GH different from insulin
it inhibits uptake glucose from most areas, promotes lipolysis, promotes glycogenesis,
what are the three areas of the adrenal cortex and what are the major hormones produced by each
1) zona glomerulosa- catecholamines
2) zona fasciculata- cotisol and androgens
3) zona reticularis (redickularis)- androgens (cortisol).
as defined as a glucocorticoid what does cortisol do?
It breaks down carbs, fats, and proteins
As defined as a mineralcorticoid what does aldosterone do? When is aldosterone released and what effects does it cause?
it maintain the balance of Na and K. It is released when bloodpressure is to low and it causes Na to enter blood and water follows and K leaves if your K level is too high.
what two factors could cause aldosterone production?
1) renin-angiotension system 2) elevated K levels
list all of the functions of cortisol?
1) break down carbs
2) hepatic gluconeogenesis- production of glucose from other sources besides glucogen 3) lipolysis 4) protein degradation (only cortisol can do this). 5) protein synthesis to repair injury.
How does melatonin directly block turmor growth?
It blocks cancel cell's metabolism of linoleic acid
how does melatonin indirectly block tumor growth?
It prevents the ovary from producing high levels of estrogen and other sex hormones that can cause cancer in breasts
what carrier protein is specific to cotisoll
what is the major breakdown site for steroids and what happens here
the liver; large steroids are broken into smaller units and SO4 added to increase polarity
what is the major excretion site for steroids
kidneys and in feces as bile
what hormone in the anterior pituitary is responsible for milk production
what are all the effects of GH
1) growth (major) of bone and muscle
2) metabolism (minor)- glycogenesis and lipolysis