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44 Cards in this Set

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What is the term that refers to food and any conglomeration of enzymes in the stomach?
chyme
Is the material in the GI tract considered inside or outside of the body?
outside
What are the four functions of the GI system?
Digestion, Secretion, Absorption, & Motility
Which type of nutrient is uptaken through the lymphatic system
fats
4 major functions of saliva
1) moisten & lubricate food 2) digestion of polysaccharides by amylase 3) dissolve food 4) antibacterial actions
The mucus in the stomach protects the epithelial surface from what primarily
HCL
What secretion of the pancreas neutralizes HCL in the small intestine
bicarbonate
What are the components of bile?
bicarbonate ions, cholesterol, phospholipids, bile pigments, organic wastes and bile salts
What hormone forces the gall bladder to contract and the sphincter of Oddi to relax?
cholecystokinen (CCK)
What structures form the enteric nervous system?
the submucosal & myenteric nerve plexi
From inner to outer, name the four layers of the GI tract
Mucosa, Submucosa, Muscularis externa, & Serosa
What are the components of the Mucosa layer?
Lamina propria and Muscularis mucosa
What are the components of the Submucosa layer?
Major blood and lymphatic vessels & submucosal nerve plexus
What are the components of the Muscularis externa layer?
Circular muscle, Myenteric nerve plexus, & longitudinal muscle
What is the term for a capillary of the lymphatic system?
Lacteal
Disaccharide made of glucose & fructose
sucrose
Disaccharide made of glucose & galactose
lactose
Disaccharide made of glucose & glucose
maltose
How is fructose absorbed in the small intestine?
facilitated diffusion
How are glucose and galactose absorbed in the small intestine (except for basolateral membrane)?
secondary active transport
How are amino acids absorbed in the small intestine (except for basolateral membrane)?
secondary active transport
Which gradient drives the absorption of amino acids in the small intestine?
Na+
How are short amino acid chains (or peptides) absorbed in the small intestine?
secondary active transport
Which gradient drives the absorption of short amino acid chains (or peptides) in the small intestine?
H+
How are amino acids transported across the basolateral membrane?
facilitated diffusion
How are glucose and galactose transported across the basolateral membrane?
facilitated diffusion
Intrinsic factor is essential for the uptake of what?
Vitamin B12
What is the result of pancreatice lipase with a triglyceride
2 free fatty acids (FFAs) and a monoglyceride
Where and from what is bile salt (glycocholic acid) formed?
in the liver from cholesterol
What is the amphipathic molecule that binds the lipase from the pancreas and holds it on the surface of the emulsion droplet?
colipase
How and where is the intrinsic factor-Vitamin B12 complex uptaken in the small intestine?
via endocytosis in the ileum
What happens to vitamin D in the liver?
It is hydroxylated by 25-hydroxylase to form 25-OH D
What happens to 25-OH D in the kidneys?
It is further hydroxylated by 1-hydroxylase to form 1,25-(OH)2 D
What hormone encourages the further hyrdoxylation of 25-OH D in the kidneys?
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
How is Iron absorbed in the small intestine?
active transport
Once inside the intestinal cell, what incorporates Iron?
ferritin
What protein carries Iron as it circulates in the blood?
transferrin
If the body wants more Iron absorbed, which protein does it regulate? Is it up-regulated or down-regulated?
ferritin, down-regulated
Name the 4 stimuli of the GI tract:
Distention of 1) luminal wall, chyme: 2) osmolarity, 3)acidity, & 4)concentration digestion products
main phospholipid in bile
lecithin
main bile pigment
bilirubin (yellow), yellow jaundice is an overretention in the body... also is what gives urine yellow color, and feces brown color
what's the primary factor causing relase of CCK
fatty acids
primary function of segmental contraction in small intestine:
mixing
is contraction higher in the duodenum or jejunum/ileum
duodenum