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105 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Prehensile
Grasping
Opposable digit (hallux)
Thumbs or toes that grasp
Omnivorous
Having a diet consisting of many food types, such as plant materials, meat, and insects.
Olfaction
The sense of smell
Nocturnal
Active at night
Stereoscopic vision
Images are superimposed, allowing depth perception
Binocular vision
Overlapping visual fields provided by forward facing eyes
Neocortex
most recently evolved portions of the cortex, higher mental functions, integrate information from various senses
Arboreal
Lives in trees
Dental Formula
numerical device indicating number of the 4 types of teeth
Diurnal
Active in daylight
Quadrapedal
Locomotion using all 4 limbs
Brachiation
Locomotion by arm-swinging used by some arboreal primates
Rhinarium
Moist, hairless pad at end of nose neen in most mammalian species. Enhances ability to smell
Anthropoids
Includes monkeys, apes, and humans
Prosimians
Lemurs, bushbabies, tarsiers
Catarrhines
Old world monkeys, apes, humans
Platyhrrines
New world monkeys
Hominoids
Superfamily, Apes and humans
Strepsirhines
Lemurs and Lorises
Haplorhines
suborder incl. tarsiers monkeys apes and human
Braincase morphology
dur
Postorbital Bar
Behind the eyes
Haplorhines
suborder incl. tarsiers monkeys apes and human
Braincase morphology
dur
Behavioral ecology
evolution of behavior, emphasizing ecological factors as agents of natural selection.
Postorbital Bar
Behind the eyes
Philopatric
Remaining in ones natal group or home range as an adult. Most species members of one sex disperse from their natal group as young adults, usually males in nonhuman primates
Behavioral ecology
evolution of behavior, emphasizing ecological factors as agents of natural selection.
Haplorhines
suborder incl. tarsiers monkeys apes and human
Haplorhines
suborder incl. tarsiers monkeys apes and human
Life history traits
charactaristics and developmental stages that influence rates of reproduction. Longevity, time till sexual maturity, length of time between births
Braincase morphology
dur
Philopatric
Remaining in ones natal group or home range as an adult. Most species members of one sex disperse from their natal group as young adults, usually males in nonhuman primates
Braincase morphology
dur
Strategies
Behaviors that have been favored by nat. sel.
Life history traits
charactaristics and developmental stages that influence rates of reproduction. Longevity, time till sexual maturity, length of time between births
Postorbital Bar
Behind the eyes
Postorbital Bar
Behind the eyes
Sympatric
Living in the same area, pertaining to two or more species whose habitats overlap
Behavioral ecology
evolution of behavior, emphasizing ecological factors as agents of natural selection.
Behavioral ecology
evolution of behavior, emphasizing ecological factors as agents of natural selection.
Strategies
Behaviors that have been favored by nat. sel.
Conspecifics
members of the same species
Philopatric
Remaining in ones natal group or home range as an adult. Most species members of one sex disperse from their natal group as young adults, usually males in nonhuman primates
Philopatric
Remaining in ones natal group or home range as an adult. Most species members of one sex disperse from their natal group as young adults, usually males in nonhuman primates
Sympatric
Living in the same area, pertaining to two or more species whose habitats overlap
Dominance Hierarchies
systems of social organizations in which individuals are ranked relative to one another.
Life history traits
charactaristics and developmental stages that influence rates of reproduction. Longevity, time till sexual maturity, length of time between births
Life history traits
charactaristics and developmental stages that influence rates of reproduction. Longevity, time till sexual maturity, length of time between births
Conspecifics
members of the same species
Strategies
Behaviors that have been favored by nat. sel.
Strategies
Behaviors that have been favored by nat. sel.
Dominance Hierarchies
systems of social organizations in which individuals are ranked relative to one another.
Sympatric
Living in the same area, pertaining to two or more species whose habitats overlap
Sympatric
Living in the same area, pertaining to two or more species whose habitats overlap
Conspecifics
members of the same species
Conspecifics
members of the same species
Dominance Hierarchies
systems of social organizations in which individuals are ranked relative to one another.
Dominance Hierarchies
systems of social organizations in which individuals are ranked relative to one another.
Communication
an act that conveys information
Autonomic
physiological responses that are not under voluntary control. ex. blushing, raised body hair
Displays
repetitious behaviors communicating emotional status, frequently associated with mating or agonistic behavior.
Grooming
Social bonding strategy designed for increased social cohesion and for practical health.
Reproductive Strategies
Behavioral patterns that contributes to individual reproductive success, not necessarily deliberate or uniform across gender
Sexual selection
Indiviuals of one sex choose mating partners based on criteria pertaining to fitness, leading to sexual dimorphism
K-selected
Few offspring, more care
R-selected
Large numbers of offspring, reduced parental care
Alloparenting
Parenting by an individual other than the child's parent.
Social Structure
The social structure
Affiliative
Pertaining to amicable associations between individuals, such as grooming
One male-multi female
Gorillas
Multimale-multifemale
Bonobos, Chimps
monogamous
Humans
Polyandry
one female, multi-male, only seen in marmosets and tamarins
Solitary
nocturnal prosimians
Encephalization
proportional size of the brain relative to another measure
Allometry
Scaling; the differential proportion among various anatomical structures
Social brain hypothesis
Brains increase in size because demands of social living are high
Meat eating hypothesis
high nutrient diet allows for large brains, but not seen in non-primate carnivores (lions wolves)
Language
use of arbitrary communication to convey specific information
Broca's Area
part of the motor responsible for motor control of mouth, lips, tongue
Wernicke's Area
interprates sounds
Anthropocentrism
Studying other species from their differences and similarities to humans
NHP culture
huh?
Altruism
behavior benefitting another individual at risk of the actor
Kin selection
it is favorable for individuals related, but not the parent of, another to be altruistic, because ssome measure of their genes will pass
group selection
individuals will be altruistic to the group because its in the individuals interest for the group to survive
Reciprocal altruism
self explanatory
Foramen magnum
hole at base of skull allowing the spinal chord to connect to the brain
Sagittal crest
A feature on the skull allowing larger temporal jaw muscles to attach. Sexually dimorphic at times
Nuchal crest
A feature on quadrapedal animals at back of skull allowing larger neck muscles to attach
Y-5
5 point general ape molar
Bilophodont
Old world monkey molar tooth, 4 points
Prognathism
the protrusion of the lower face
Supraorbital torus (browridge)
dur
Plesiadapiforms
extinct early primates from 65-52 mya
Plesiadapids
a species of plesiadapiforms
Carpolestids
"fruit stealer' another early primate. small rat-sized North American and Asian
Euprimates
55-32 mya, more primate-like derived characteristics
Adapoidea
Lemur like Euprimates
Omomyoide
Tarsier like Euprimates
Ischial callosities
A callous on the bottom for sitting. Old world monkies
Artifacts
stuff modified or used by humans
Taphonomy
study of tombs, how bones and materials came be underground and fossilized