Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/84

Click to flip

84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
anthropology
-The field of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology.
subfields of anthropology
-Cultural
-Archaeology
-Linguistic
-Physical
Middle Ages: Claudius Ptolemy
-Earth-centered Universe
-The Ptolemic Paradigm
-Static Organic World – not moving
-The Great Chain of Being – ranked order of living things with humans at the top
-Fixity of life forms/types since creation
-Age of Earth is approx. 6000 years
Nicolas Copernicus
Heliocentric Universe
Bacon
Inductive Method
Harvey
Circulation of blood
Galileo
Experimental science, gravity
Newton
Laws of motion/gravity
Comte de Buffon
-Questioned the divine perfection of nature
-Argued for mutability of species
-Saw life as a dynamic process, not static pattern
Carolus Linnaeus
-wrote Systema Naturae (1758) (categorize all known species)
-binomial nomenclature – genus and species names are used to refer to species
-grouped humans with animals
Lamarck
-wrote Philosophie Zoologique (1809)
-interaction of organic forms and their environment
-environmental change = morphological change
-inheritance of acquired characteristics – favorable characteristics are passed on
Georges Cuvier
-catastrophism as explanation for extinction
-anti-evolutionist, but divided animal kingdom
Charles Lyell
-Geological Uniformitarianism – earth’s features are the result of long-term process that continue to operate in the present as they did in the past.
-Suggested much older date for age of the earth than theistic estimates
-Deep time / geological time
Thomas Malthus
-wrote Essay on the Principle of Population (1798)
-human population growth potentially geometric
-population growth potential checked by struggle for existence
Charles Darwin
-associated with originating evolutionary theory
-Natural selection as key evolutionary force
-Emphasis on variation as driving mechanism
-Voyage of the beagle…
Harvey
Circulation of blood
Galileo
Experimental science, gravity
Newton
Laws of motion/gravity
Comte de Buffon
-Questioned the divine perfection of nature
-Argued for mutability of species
-Saw life as a dynamic process, not static pattern
What were the main achievements of Carolus Linnaeus?
-wrote Systema Naturae (1758) (categorize all known species)
-binomial nomenclature – genus and species names are used to refer to species
-grouped humans with animals
What were the main achievements of Lamarck?
-wrote Philosophie Zoologique (1809)
-interaction of organic forms and their environment
-environmental change = morphological change
-inheritance of acquired characteristics – favorable characteristics are passed on
What were the main views of Georges Cuvier?
-catastrophism as explanation for extinction
-anti-evolutionist, but divided animal kingdom
What were the main achievements of Charles Lyell?
-Geological Uniformitarianism – earth’s features are the result of long-term process that continue to operate in the present as they did in the past.
-Suggested much older date for age of the earth than theistic estimates
-Deep time / geological time
What were the main achievements of Thomas Malthus?
-wrote Essay on the Principle of Population (1798)
-human population growth potentially geometric
-population growth potential checked by struggle for existence
What were the main achievements of Charles Darwin?
-associated with originating evolutionary theory
-Natural selection as key evolutionary force
-Emphasis on variation as driving mechanism
-Voyage of the beagle…
-domesticated plants and animals
-geographical distribution of life forms
-geological and paleontological record
What was some of Darwin's empirical evidence?
-comparitive anatomy of living and extinct animals
-evidence from developmental studies such as embryology
-the presence of vestigial organs
What were the main achievements of Alfred Russel Wallace?
-defining natural selection - genetic changes in a population due to differential reproductive success between individuals
What is the scientific method?
-A research method whereby a problem is identified, a hypothesis is stated, and that hypothesis is tested through the collection and analysis of data. If the hypothesis is verified, it becomes a theory.
What is the hierarchial structure of science?
-law(principle)
-theory
-model(hypothesis)
-prediction
-data
-observation
hypothesis
-testable explanation for a set of data
testability
clear predictions that are potentially falsifiable
null hypothesis
predictions subject to disproof (skepticism)
What are the two key features of DNA?
-serve as a blueprint for the physical makeup of any organism
-has the ability to replicate itself at cell division so an exact copy of this blueprint can be passed on
gene
-sequence of DNA bases which codes for a specific polypeptide chain (protein product)
allele
-alternate form of a gene
-(i.e. A, B, and O blood types)
nucleotide
-base unit of a DNA molecule made up of a sugar, a phosphate, and a base
DNA triplet
-sequence of 3 DNA bases that code for an amino acid
DNA codon
-sequence of 3 RNA bases that code for an amino acid
How does RNA differ from DNA?
-RNA is single stranded
-RNA has a different sugar in its backbone called ribose
-in RNA, the base, Uracil, is substituted for thymine.
What is protein synthesis?
-what cells do when they aren't dividing
-results in the creation of proteins
transcription
-takes place in the cell nucleus
-messenger RNA (mRNA) copes/transcribes the DNA in a series of 3 bases
translation
-mRNA travels from the nucleus to the ribosome
-transfer RNA (tRNA) brings in amino acids to match up to the codons
-amino acids are connected into proteins
redundancy
-some amino acids are coded for by more than one triplet
-prevents mistakes in DNA replication from becoming fatal
chromosomes
-packaged DNA
mitosis
-somatic cell division
diploid
-full number of chromosomes (46)
meiosis
-sex cell (gamete division)
haploid
-half number of chromosomes (23)
recombination
-increases variation, happens in meiosis only
Mendel's first law: principle of segregation
-traits are controlled by discrete genetic units
-these units occurred in pairs
-offspring inherited one unit from each parent
Mendel's second law: principle of independent assortment
-applies to two or more traits
-the hereditary units that code for traits assort independently of each other
the modern synthesis
-"Darwin meets Mendel"
-production and redistribution of variation
-how natural selection acts on this variation (differential reproductive success)
balanced polymorphism
-homozygous-normal red blood cells
-heterozygous-sickle-cell trait
-homozygous-sickle-cell anemia
non-mendelian traits
-polygenic traits
-pleiotropy
polygenic traits
-determined by effects of two or more genes
pleiotropy
-gene has multiple effects on phenotype
biological evolution
-changing gene frequencies
-occurs at the populational level
-occurs over generations
microevolution
-small changes in the population which occur over the period of a few thousand years
macroevolution
-large scale complex evolutionary changes in whole systems (brains size, pelvis form, development of tool making) over the period of many thousands or hundreds of thousands of years.
-speciation
modes of evolution
-mutation
-natural selection
-gene flow
-genetic drift
gene flow
-movement of genetic material from one population into another
-prevents speciation
genetic drift
-evolutionary change produced by random events
-evolution by "accident"
-has much greater impact on small populations
founder effect
-special subset of genetic drift
-founding populations do not possess the same genes in the same frequencies
-plays a large role in human evolution
3 key components in natural selection
-variation
-environment
-differential reproductive success
mutation
-only source of new allelic varition
-random
-most are neutral due to redundancy
-only important in evolution if they are in the gametes
What are the units of evolution and of selection?
-the unit of evolution is the population (individuals cannot evolve)
-the unit of selection is the individual (selection works on an individual's phenotype)
phyletic gradualism
-gradual change over time in an evolving lineage
punctuated equilibrium
-rapid periods of change in a lineage followed by periods of stasis (no change in form)
Humans can adapt to their environment through ___________:
-acclimatization
-biological adaptation
acclimatization
-short term physiological changes within an individual (hunting response, high altitude)
biological adaptation
-functional response of populations to the environment
-results from evolutionary change (long term response)
Bergmann's Rule
-relationship of body mass or volume to surface area
-body size tends to be greater in populations that live in colder climates
-as mass increases, surface area decreases proportionately
allen's rule
-concern shape of body, especially appendages
-colder climates tend to have shorter appendages, which decrease mass to surface ratios, and in turn prevents heat loss
-warmer climates tend to have longer appendages, which increases surface area relative to mass, and in turn promotes heat loss
biological definition of species
-a group of organisms that can interbreed
-to produce fertile offspring (interfertility)
-and are reproductively isolated from other groups
adaptive radiation
-the relatively rapid expansion and diversification of an evolving group of organisms as they adapt to new niches
ancestral (primitive) traits
-inherited with little or no change from a remote ancestor (5 fingers)
derived traits
-traits that have undergone recent change (brain enlargement)
systematics
-the study of evolutionary relationships (descent)
-non-static approach: describes patterns of evolutionary change
two approaches of systematics
-phenetics
-cladistics
phenetics
-numerical taxonomy
-based on overall similarity
cladistics
-overall similiarty is misleading
-based on shared derived traits only
principle of convergence
-natural selections causes simliar morphologies (forms) to evolve in simlilar environments
homology
-features that share a common ancestor
-features that share a common developmental pathway
analogy
-features which do not share a common ancestor or development
-features do share a common function