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37 Cards in this Set

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Neandethal/Cro-Magnon
Neanderthal is a species of the Homo genus and tools were of the middle Paleolithic, called Moustrian tools. Cro-magnon is one of the main types of Homo sapiens of the European Upper Paleolithic. Lived at the same time and showed that the bushes theory is true while disproving the ladder theory since one did not come from the other.
Accidental Conqueror
Because of Eurasia’s geography allowed for domestication, they were able to domestic the “big five,” sheep, goats, pigs, cows, and horses. The Indians could not because of their geography. Being able to dometicate gave more power to that country. Ex. horse with warfare
Two Cultures by C.P.
States that there are two polar intellectual groups: the literary intellectuals and scientists. Because there is such a gap between these two groups, there is a lack of communication and understanding of the other’s “culture.” With this belief of education specialization, this gap with continue to grow. This gap hinders the advancement of thought.
Mousterian vs. Aurignacian tools
Moustrian included thick flakes and hand axes. Aurignacian included sophisticated blades, slender-hafted spearheads and bone tools, and body ornaments. Evidence that Neanderthals began advancing their technologies, maybe in response to the arrival of Cro-Magnon.
Cuneiform
One of the earliest forms of written expression, created by the Sumerians, and began as a system of pictographs. inspired the language of the Old Persian and Urgaritic national alphabets, shows a diffusion of the idea of writing.
Chauvet or Lascaux cave
Located in southern France and contains some of the oldest cave art. at the very end of the gallery where there appears to be a Venus figure . This scene would suggest a ritual, shamanic or magical aspect to these paintings.
Hieroglyphics
most famous of all ancient writing systems and assumed to be the product of independent invention. Appeared rather suddenly instead of seen developing gradually. Because of this, there might have been independent invention rather than idea diffusion.
Allegory of the Cave by Plato
About prisoners in a dark cave and they take the shadows as truth. One prisoner goes into the light and when he comes back they try to kill him because he tries to tell them what they believe is truth, isn’t. Shows that people will reject truth if it is not within their reality.
Venus figures
Figurines made by Cro-Magnon, stressing the curves of a woman. Size of the pebble and working on a small scale limited what could be accomplished. Shape triggered imagination and there is a feedback between shape and conceived image which evolves as one goes on.
teosinte vs. wild wheat
Teosinte has 6 to 12 kernels per ear, inedible, underwent a sex change from male to female which then made them edible and led them to be domesticated. Wild wheat is self pollinating and was earlier domesticated because of this. It being edible and domesticated helped agriculture and the growth of such.
Bushes and Ladders
Ladder is a single progression of new species coming directly after one another. Bushes is the idea that species of similar ancestry could be living at the same time. Bushes is correct because of the evidence of Neanderthals and Cro-magnons living at the same time.
cave art
Theory that it served as a ceremonial purpose – paintings sometimes in the very back of cave, like secret service being held. Theory that it was transmitting information – each painting looked like it should be “read” in sub sequential order, as if telling a story.
Neanderthal people did not produce any representational art, they also overlapped the Cro-Magnon, reinforces the opinion that Neandethal and Cro-Magnon were two separate, albeit closely related, species, and not endpoints of a smooth evolutionary continuum.
domesticate-able animals
Most had to be social species living in herds, could not be nervous (like gazelles), and requires that an animal can be bred in captivity. Horses changed warfare – hitch battle chariots and ride them.
Radioisotope dating
Radiocarbon, or Carbon-14, dating is probably one of the most widely used and best known absolute dating methods. It was developed by J. R. Arnold and W. F. Libby in 1949, and has become an indispensable part of the archaeologist's tool kit since. Its development revolutionized archaeology by providing a means of dating deposits independent of artifacts and local stratigraphic sequences. This allowed for the establishment of world-wide chronologies.
Carrying and sharing
Came from bipedalism by freeing of the two hands. Captured games couldn’t be shared unless it was taken home. Males and females, for the first time, shared responsibility in feeding their offspring. Because they carry more food at the same time as offspring, they have more offspring and thus according to Darwin, better survive.
The Four Ages
The first, the Golden Age - There was no crime, no anger, nothing but love and joy, no swords and no plows. Silver Age - Zeus was clearly the ruler and he created the 4 seasons and people stopped living in caves because they discovered building a house, people started plowing. Bronze Age - cruel people were inclined to arms but not to impious crimes. Iron Age – crime, no faith, and constant war.
Natural selection
Individuals with the phenotype that is best suited for that environment, and when they reproduce, their offspring will have those genes that allow them to survive that environment. Conversely, if they don’t have best suited phonotype, less likely to live long enough to reproduce, underrepresented in the population. It is no random because the environment exerts selective pressure in favor for certain characteristics and against others. Because of this action of natural selection, biological populations may be fluid and responsive to the environment.
Mirror neurons
Researchers found this when neurons in a monkey became active when watching another monkey perform a task. They concluded that these mirror cells form a system for match the observation and execution of mouth and hand actions – the first steps towards imitation. For the first time, it provides an example of a direct physiological hookup between input and output.
War Prayer
About a priest who is giving a war prayer – praying for victory – when a old man walks in and tells the people that when they pray for war, they are praying to destroy homes, break up families, blight their lives, ect. Shows that when people think of war and going against someone else, they don’t really see that person as person who has life and family to loose. Contrast the view that war was honorable and showed people should pay more attention when we go to war.
Lucy
name for the first complete skeleton of the Australopithecus afarensis, estimated to be 3.2 million years old. Significance is that she could walk up right – caring and sharing.
Click languages
Thought of being the first language, but not proven. The click language was helpful in stalking game and started the idea of orally communicating.
Fertile Crescent
Crescent shape region in the Middle East. Fertile Crescent had a climate diversity and major climatic changes which encouraged the evolution of many "r" type annual plants, which produce more edible seeds, as a result, a lot of human activity.
Homo habilis
Homo habilis is arguably the first species of the Homo genus to appear. thought to have mastered the Olduwan era (Early Paleolithic) tool case which utilized stone flakes. These stone flakes were more advanced than any tools previously used, and gave H. habilis the edge it needed to prosper in hostile environments previously too formidable for primates.
Coyote
creator and trickster. Because of his choice of stealing the children, he brought about the floods, which relates to many religious and mythical stories of a flood coming and destroying everything and then starting afresh.
Idea diffusion vs blueprint
Both refer to the idea of how we developed writing. Idea diffusion is the idea that only the basic idea is knows: someone has succeeded and that inspires others to devise their own routes to such a result. Blueprint may be kept secret or unreadable, there may be talk of the invention, but details do not get transmitted.
Homo erectus
about one million years old, shallow forehead, massive brow ridges, and brain of about 1,000cm3. “Daka” found in a savannah in Africa – significance is that it was remarkably siilar to H. erectus fossils from Java, China, and Europe, countering the view that the non-African specimens represented different branches of the evolutionary tree.
Begochiddy
the myth of the Navajo said him to be the real creator God. He created four worlds and the people lived in the fourth. Similar to other myths, creating this greater force.
Myth
has many purposes, to tell a story, teach a lesson, or to explain how something is, for example, why the sun rises. These were significant because the myths showed similarities between all the creation myths over many different cultures, showing that human beings creating gods is something that humans beings have always done.
Mitochondrial DNA
Scientists samples mitochondrial DNA sequences from modern human populations. They found great similarity, yet all were subsets of the African genomes. MtDNA, passed only from the mother, is an excellent molecular clock for dating recent events, b/c the faster mutation rate reveals more differences than does slower-ticking nuclear DNA. The scientists extrapolated back to 100,000 to 200,000 years to a “luck mother” who had lived in Africa and was dubbed Mitochondrial Eve. This supported African origin – Darwin’s theory of where we originated.
Obatala
Part of the African creation myth, created dry land and created man from clay. He was drunk when he created some humans and they became imperfect figures. Relates to our creation story, the idea of temptation and its consequences.
Pastoral Poetry
showed they had leisure time, which leads to art, which equals expression, which equals more than just survival, with equals a soul
Larynx
voice box, 300,000 years ago our ancestors became more “modern” anatomically, and they possessed a larynx located at the top of the trachea, lower than in other primates. This position increases the range of sounds humans can make, although it also asks it easier for food going down the esophagus to be misdirected, leaving us more vulnerable to choking.
Sense of the Unseen
idea from Karen Armstrong that we know longer sense the unseen, saying that we don’t feel that there is greater force governing our lives. Consequence is that we have edited out the sense of “spiritual” which pervades the lives of people in more traditional societies. When people personalized the unseen forces and made them gods, they were expressing their sense of affinity with the unseen and with the world around them.
Brazen Age
followed the Silver Age in the Four Ages by Ovid. Brought a warlike offspring, prompt to bloody rage, not impious yet. It was inevitable that war was about to come - similar to Plato's Republic, man going to war to get more territory
The Republic, By Plato
Plato’s idea that we will always feel this need to “expand” which then causes war. War is inevitable - leads to the idea that maybe this is innate also relates to the Four Ages
Virgil’s Georgics
Four didactic poems about agriculture, contain instruction in plowing, sowing, and interpreting the weather. Significant because it showed that only hard work can assure the success of agricultural life. This shows why we specialize, farmer, doctor.
Phytoliths
microscopic silica bodies that form when plants take up silica from groundwater. As the silica fills up, it takes the shape of the plant. Domestic plants have larger seeds, hence larger cells and phytoliths. This technique enables us to discover when certain plants were domesticated – such as the squash being domesticated after much local game were extinct.