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20 Cards in this Set

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SECONDARY SCHEMA
• 8 to 12 mths
• Crawling and creeping begins
• Trial-and-error exploration.
• Can predict potential occurrences beyond their immediate activity. This is the onset of intellectual reasoning. Ex: as a baby rolls a ball away, they expect it to be rolled back to them.
EXERCISE OF REFLEXES
• Birth – 1 mths
• By accident or reflex, a baby may find its mouth. As a result of modifying the reflex, the infant may learn to find the mouth and suck his thumb.
PRIMARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS
• 1 to 4 mths
• Now the infant makes conscious efforts to repeat desired acts.
SECONDARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS
• 4 to 8 mths
• More enduring behavior intended to make an event lasting.
• Persistent shaking of a rattle or banging of a toy
• Imitation is a major characteristic of this stage.
• Still no sense of permanence. And if imitating, source of imitation has to be immediately present.
TERTIARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS
• 12 to 18 mths
• Discovery of new ways to get desired results through active experimentation.
• The discover of an object and the use of an object are separate entities.
o A baby knows that a ball can be played with. And even if it is not played with now, it can still be played with later.
• People become important in this stage.
o Distinguishing the self from others facilitates the development of the ability to create action through others. This is critical in developing socially.
INVENTION OF NEW MEANS THROUGH MENTAL COMBINATIONS
• 18 to 24 mths
• Metamorphosis from active involvement to reflection.
• The most important characteristic of this sub-stage is the ability to consider the self and an object in the past, present and future.
• Children can now recall an event without physically reenacting what happened.
• They can also ponder alternatives and predict potential outcomes.
SUMMARY OF THE MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SENSORIMOTOR STAGE.
 Increasing awareness of the difference b/t self and others.
 Recognizing that objects continue to exist even if not seen.
 Production of mental images allowing contemplation of the past, present and future
ACCOMMODATION
adjusting past experiences to new ones
ASSIMILATION
using past knowledge to interpret new experiences
CRITICISMS OF PIAGET
o Lacked scientific evidence.
o There could have been bias since he was observing his own children.
o There was a significant portion of the lifespan unobserved.
o Underestimated children (hidden competencies)
o Did not discern between competency and performance. If a child did not do well it was because he was not competent. There was no account for emotional state.
o Too little emphasis on motivation and emotions.
o Stages were too broad.
o Did not clearly explain development. He did not explain how intellectual changes evolve.
4 DOMAINS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
o Cognitive
o Affective
o Physical
o Motor
SIX STAGES OF SENSORIMOTOR
EXERCISE OF RELFEX
PRIMARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS
SECONDARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS
SECONDARY SCHEMATA
TERTIARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS
INVENTION OF NEW MEANS THRU MENTAL COMBINATIONS
CONSERVATION
The child is unable to realize that characteristics remain the same even though the appearance changes. Ex: a ball of dough is squished. The child may believe the ball has more dough.
SERIATION
Ability to arrange a set of variables by a certain characteristic.
WAIS
WESCHELER ADULT INTELLIGENCE SCALE: A SCALE THAT MEASURES 11 COMPONENTS OF INTELLECTUAL ABILITY: 6 VERBAL ABILITY AND 5 PERFORMANCE ABILITY
CONTEXTUAL PERSPECTIVE
THE IDEA THAT LEARNING AND MEMORY DEPEND ON FACTORS LIKE CULTURE
IMPLICIT MEMORY
UNINTENTIONAL
EXPLICITY MEMORY
DELIBERATE
DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE
CAN BE VIEWED AS FACTUAL INFORMATION
PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE
CAN BE VIEWED AS HOW TO DO SOMETHING