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53 Cards in this Set

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absolute distance
the distance that can be measured with a standard unit of length, such as mile or km
absolute location
the exact position of an object or plane, measured within the spatial coordinates of a grid system
accessibility
the relative ease with which a destination may be reached from some other place
azimuthal projection
a map projection in which the plane is the most developable surface
breaking point
the outer edge of a city's sphere of influence, used in the law of retail gravitation to describe the area of a city's hinterlands that depend on that city for its retail supply
cartograms
a type of thematic map that transforms space such as the political unit with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the largest relative area
choropleth map
a thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as avg values per unit area
cognitive map
an image of a portion of the earth's surface that an individual creates in his or her mind. they can include knowledge of actual locations and relationships b/w locations as well as personal perceptions and preferences of particular places
complementarity
the actual or potential relationship b/w 2 places, usually referring to economic interactions
connectivity
the degree of economic, social, cultural, or political connection b/w 2 places
contagious diffusion
the spread of a disease, innovation, or cultural traits thru direct contact with another person or another place
coordinate system
a standard grid, composed of lines of latitude and longitude, used to determine the absolute location of any object, place, or feature on the earth's surface
distance decay effect
the decrease in interaction between 2 phenomena, places, or people as the distance b/w them increases
dot maps
thematic maps that use points to show the precise locations of specific observations or occurrences, such as crimes, car accidents, or births
expansion diffusion
the spread of ideas, innovations, fashion, or other phenomena to surrounding areas thru contact and exchange
friction of distance
a measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction b/w 2 places
fuller projection
a type of map projection that maintains the accurate size and shape of landmasses but completely rearranges direction such that the 4 cardinal directions--north, south, east,west--no longer have any meaning
geoid
the actual shape of the earth, which is rough and oblate, or slightly squashed; the earth's circumference is longer around the equator then it is along the meridians, from north-south circumference
gravity model
a mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction b/w 2 places, based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other
hazards
anything in the landscape, real or perceived, that is potentially threatening. they are usually avoided in spatial behavior
hierarchical diffusion
a type of diffusion in which something is transmitted b/w places b/c of something the 2 places have in common
internat'l date line
the line of longitude that marks where each new day begins, centered on the 180th meridian
intervening oppurtunities
the idea that one places has a demand for some good or service and 2 places have a supply of equal price and quality, then the closer of the 2 suppliers to the buyer will represent an intervening opportunity, thereby blocking the third from being able to share its supply of goods or services. intervening opportunities are frequently utilized b/c transportation costs usually decrease with proximity
isoline
map line that connects points of equal or very similar values
large-scale
a relatively small ratio b/w map units and ground units. these maps usually have higher resolution and cover much smaller regions than small-scale maps
latitude
the angular distance north or south of the equator, defined by lines of latitude, or parallels
law of retail gravitation
law that states that people will be drawn to larger cities to conduct their business b/c larger cities have a wider influence on the hinterlands that surround them
location charts
on a map, a chart or graph that gives specific statistical info of a particular political unit or jurisdiction
longitude
the angular distance east or west of the prime meridian, defined by lines of longitude, or meridians
map projection
a mathematical method that involves transferring the earth's sphere onto a flat surface. can also be used to describe the type of map that results from the process of projecting. all of them have distortions in either area, direction, distance, or shape
mercator projection
a true conformal cylindrical map projection, the mercator projection is particularly useful for navigation b/c it maintains accurate direction. they are famous for their distortion in area that makes landmasses at the poles appear oversized
meridian
a line of longitude that runs north-south. all lines of longitude are equal in length and intersect at the poles
parallel
an east-west line of latitude that runs parallel to the equator and that marks distance north or south of the equator
preference map
a map that displays individual preferences for certain places
prime meridian
an imaginary line passing thru the royal observatory in greenwich, england, which marks the 0 degrees line of longitude
proportional symbols map
a thematic map in which the size of a chosen symbol--such as a circle or triangle--indicates the relative magnitude of some statistical value for a given geographic region
reference map
a map type that shows reference info for a particular place, making it useful for finding landmarks and navigating
relative distance
a measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance separating 2 places. often relative distance describes the amt of social, cultural, or economic connectivity b/w 2 places
relative location
the position of a place relative to places around it
relocation diffusion
the diffusion of ideas, innovations, behaviors, and the like from one place to another thru migration
resolution
a map's smallest discernable unit. if, for example, an object has to be one km long in order to show up on a map, then that map's resolution is 1 km
robinson projection
projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors. it does not maintain completely accurate area, shape, distance, or direction, but it minimizes errors in each
scale
the ratio b/w the size of an area on a map and the actual size of that same area on the earth's surface
site
the absolute location of a place, described by local relief, landforms, and other cultural or physical characteristics
situation
the relative location of a place in relation to the physical and cultural characteristics of the surrounding area and the connections and interdependencies within that system; a place's spatial context
small-scale
map scale ratio in which the ratio of units on the map to units on the earth is quite small. these maps usually depict large areas
spatial diffusion
refers to the ways in which phenomena, such as technological innovations, cultural trends, or even outbreaks of disease, travel over space
thematic map
a type of map that displays one or more variables--such as population, or income level--within a specific area
time-space convergence
the idea that distance b/w some places is actually shrinking as technology enables more rapid communication and increased interaction b/w those places
topographic maps
maps that use isolines to represent constant elevations. if you took one out into the field and walked exactly along the path of an isoline on your map, you would always stay at the same elevation
topological space
the amt of connectivity b/w 2 places regardless of the absolute distance separating them
transferability
the costs involved in moving goods from one place to another
visualization
use of sophisticated software to create dynamic computer maps, some of which are 3-dimensional or interactive