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51 Cards in this Set

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Prokaryotes
Organisms without a nuclues
Eukaryotes
Organishms that have a nuclear membrane surrounding the genetic material and have other membrane-bound organelles in the cytoplasm
Cytoskeleton
Asystem of protein microfilaments and microtubules that allows a cell to have a characteristic shape
Endoplasmic Reticulum
A system of cytoplasmic membranes arranged into sheets and channels that function in synthesizing and transporting gene products
Ribosomes
Cytoplasmic particles composed of two subunits that are the site of protein synthesis
Golgi apparatus
Membranous organelles composed of a series of flattened sacs. They sort, modify, and package proteins synthesized in the ER
Lysosomes
Membrane-enclosed organelles that contain digestive enzymes
Mitochondria
Membrane-bound organelles present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells that are the sites of energy production within the cells
Nuclues
The membrane-bounded organelle in eukaryotic cells that contains the chromosomes.
Nucleolus
A nuclear region that functions in the synthesis of ribosomes
Chromatin
The component material of chormosomes, visible as clumps or threads in nuclei under a microscope
Chromosomes
The threadlike structures in the nucleus that carry genetic information
Genes
The fundamental units of heredity
Homologs
Members of a chromosomal pair
Diploid
the condition in which each chromosome is represented twice as a member of a homologous pair
Haploid
The condition in which each chromosome is represented once in an unpaired condition
Zygote
The diploid cell resulting from the union of a male haploid gamete and a female haploid gamete
Centromere
A region of a chromosome to which fibers attach during cell division. The location of a centromere gives a chromosome its characteristic shape
Autosome
Chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes
Interphase
The period of time in the cell cycle between mitotic divisions
Mitosis
Form of cell division that produces two cells, each of which has the same complement of chromosomes as the parent cell
Cytokinesis
The process of cytoplasmic division that accompanies cell division
G1
Stage immediately after mitosis-RNA, protein, and other molecules are synthesized
S
DNA is replicated. Chromosomes become double stranded
G2
Mitochondria divide. Precursors of spindle fibers are synthesized
Prophase
1st stage of mitosis-Chromosomes condense; Nuclear envelope disappears; Centrioles divide and migrate to opposite poles of the dividing cell; Spindle fibers from attach to chromosomes
Metaphase
2nd stage of mitosis-Chromosomes line up on the midline of the dividing cell
Anaphase
3rd stage of mitosis-Chromosomes begin to seperate
Telophase
4th stage of mitosis-Chromosomes migrate or are pulled to opposite poles; New nuclear envelope forms; Chromosomes uncoil
Chromatid
One of the strands of a duplicated chromosome, joined by a common centromere, Each chromatid carries identical genetic information
Synapsis
The pairing of homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis
Chiasmata
The crossing of nonsister chromatids strands seen in the first meiotic prophase. Chiasmata represent the structural evidence for crossing-over
Crossing-over
The process of exchanging parts between homologous chromosomes during meiosis, which produces new combinations of genetic information
Assortment
The random distrubution of members of homologous chromosomal pairs during meiosis
Recombination
The exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes. Also known as crossing over
Interphase I
Chromosome replication takes place.
Prophase I
Chromosomes become visible, homologous chromosomes pair, and sister chromatids become visible. Recombanation takes place
Metaphase I
Paired chromosomes align at equator of cell.
Anaphase I
Homologous chromosomes separate. Members of each chromosome pair move to opposite poles
Telophase I
Cytoplasm divides, producing two cells
Interphase II
Following a brief pause, chromosomes uncoil slightly. This is not a real interphase as such
Prophase II
Chromosomes re-coil
Metaphase II
Unpaired chromosomes become aligned at equator of cell
Anaphase II
Centromeres split. Daughter chromosomes pull apart
Telophase II
Chromosomes uncoil, nuclear membrane reforms, cytoplasm divides, and meiosis is complete
Spermatogonia
Mitotically active cells in the gonads of males that give rise to primary spermatocytes
Spermatid
The four haploid cells produced by meiotic division of a primary spermatocyte
Oogonia
Mitotically active cells that produce primary oocytes
Secondary oocyte
The large cell produced by the first meiotic division
Ootid
The haploid cell produced by meiosis that becomes thr functional gamete
Polar bodies
Cells produced in the first or second division in female meiosis that contain litlle cytoplasm and will not function as gametes