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23 Cards in this Set

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named for Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania; Hard to assign these tools to the correct makers with certainty. Sometimes more than one species of Hom o or Australpithecus or Paranthropus co-existed in E. Afrida. The world's oldest stone artifacts are 2.6 to 1.5 MYA
names for St. Acheul, N. France; they are associated with Homo erectus and Homo ergaster. Found in Europe (rarely), Kenya, Tanzania, S. Afrida, and Zambia. Ages cited as 1.5 M to 200,000 years old. In Quangxi Province, S. China, the oldest known tools from E. Asia are 803,000 - 3,000 years old; used percussion flaking method
Named for LeMoustier, France, in Dordogne region. Finished flakes are struck from a stone core. Usually associated with Neanderthals & early H. sapiens; scrapers, points and knives; Levallois technique - removing a large number of flakes to produce the desired shape
a tool industry found primarily in N. Africa, such as the Atlas Mountains of Algeria and Morocco. Middle Paleolithic. Some sites may be 82,000 years old, so these are very early H. sapeins tools, predating the European ones.
named for Aurignac, in Haute Garonne, france. Upper Paleolithic. In the Old World, includes Europe and eastward to Iran and Afghanistan. Dates from 33,000 - 18,000 years ago (some say 32,000-26,000 or 35,000-15,000). Includes bone tools and works of art. The Venus figures is an example of Aurignacian art.
an upper Paleolithic tool industry in Europe. Named for La Gravette in Dordogne region of southwestern France. 30,000-22,000 years ago. Truncated blades, points and burins.
an upper Paleolithic cultural tradition that flourished only from 18,000-15,000 years ago. It is distinguished by its laurel-leaf blades. Only in Spain and southwestern France. Remarkably parallel tools from N. America closely resemble Solutrean points.
Paleolithic period
old stone age, characterized by chipped stone tools. Covers 99% of human history, till about 12,000 years ago with the introduction of agriculture
Mesolithic period
middle stone age of Europe and SW Asia, that began about 12,000 years ago
Neolithic period
the new stone age in SW Asia, that began about 11,000 years ago
means "cold chisel" in French; a lithic flake probably used for engraving, or carving wood or bone.
often cited as distinction between Mousterian and Cro-Magnon in Europe. But some blades are found in south central Asia, the Levant, and S. Africa, and some go back 300,000 years
Neanderthal tools
remained relatively unchanged for over 100,000 years; Neanderthals masters of making stone tools; had spears but not bow and arrows; could not work bone and antler like Cro-Magnons
Cro-Magnon tools (Aurignacian, Gravettian, Solutrean)
became increasingly and rapidly more diverse and sophisticated; last Neanderthals may have copies some of the Cro-Magnon tools
Bonobo film
resemble chimps but smaller; peaceful; martricarchal society; live in rainforest; 2 MY in the same geographic area; shares an ancestor with chimps; humans share 98% of their DNA; live in the canopy
Cro Magnon tools
made by European H. Sapeins
H. floresiensis
Lived on Isle of Flores; 15,000 YA, nicknamed the "Hobbitt"; tiny brain - 1/3 size of humans, lived less than 3,000 years; outlasted Neanderthal
H. neanderthalensis
thick bones, strong, bowed leg bones, shorter than ours, heavy body, short, nose cavity larger to protect from weather; adapted to cold climate
Looked more like us
Traits thought to distinguish H. ergaster from H. erectus
complex multiple roots of premolars; longer, narrower molars, thinner cranial bones, lack of saggital keel; less pronounced occipital torus; narrower cranial base; high cranial vault
Critical Morphological Features of H. erectus
cranial capacity: 750 - 1250 cc; skull: platycephaly, saggital ridge, thick skull bones, greates width of skull is low down on the skull; facial skeleton: supraorbital torus and posorbital constriction, heavy mandible lacking a chin, prognathism, projecting nose; dentition: large teeth; wrinkled dental enamel; body size: increased b ody size (weight and stature) mean stature of 270 cm for African fossils; limb skeleton: modern upper limbs, narrow hips, long and robust leg bones
Critical Features associated with H. erectus
Time: 1.8 to 150,000 YA; earliest forms from E. Africa; Distribution: Africa, Asia, Europe; Associated tool: Archeulian tool industry; soft hammer technique; Lifeways: use of fire, inhabited caves, built shelters;
Critical Features associated with H. erectur Morphology
cranial capacity: 750 cc to 1250cc in latest; face and skull: flattened skull vault; greatest width of skull low on skull; thick skull bones; saggital keel is common; large browridges, marked postorbital constriction; prognathism, heavy mandible lacking a chin; large teeth; limbs: modern limb structure and pelvis; bipeds