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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define etiology
It is the cause of a disease
What is the difference between a sign and a symptom?
A sign is any measurement or physical observation.
A symptom is what the patient reports; how he feels.
How is a diagnosis made?
1.Determine the disease process by evalutating the manifestations.
2. Patient history, chief complaint.
3. Physical exam, tests
What is pallative treatment?
Treats the symptoms & makes the patient comfortable.
What are the 4 phases of inflammation?
Trigger: trauma & infection
1. Histamine is released & blood flow increases as does permeability.
2. Neutrophil exudation
3. Monocyte exudation
4. Repair/resoration
What 3 things may trigger inflammation?
Chemical agents
Allergies
Pathogenic Organisms
Trauma
Foreign substances
Physical agents
Describe the WBCs found in inflammation. Which one performs phagocytosis?
Monocytes & Neutrophils perform phagocytosis.
Eosinophils (incr. with allergy)
Basophils (contain histamine)
A. Which WBCs are largest in size?
B. Which WBCs are most in quantity?
A. Monocytes
B. Neutrophils
Define inflammation
The response of living tissue to injury. Removes injured cells and debris and contains the area of injury.
What are the ways the inflammatory process may end?
1. Tissue restoration w/ varying amts. of scarring
2. Abscess formation
3. granuloma formation
4. acute inflammation
List the signs of inflammation
Local:
Redness
Heat
Swelling/edema
pain
General:
Fever
Leukocytosis (elevated WBC count)
How does chronic inflammation differ from acute?
Chronic: Exudation & repair occur together
No neutrophils
Fibrosis (scarring)
Manifestations are less severe than acute inflammation
Describe treatments for inflammation.
Anti-inflammatory drugs
Steroids
Antihistamines
Antimicrobials
Rest/gradual excercise
drainage of abscess
What are the cell types involved in cell-mediated immunity?
Two types of Activated Lymphocytes:
Cytotoxic T-cells
Supressor T-cells
What types of cells are involved in humoral immunity?
B Lymphocytes.
Define etiology
It is the cause of a disease
What is the difference between a sign and a symptom?
A sign is any measurement or physical observation.
A symptom is what the patient reports; how he feels.
How is a diagnosis made?
1.Determine the disease process by evalutating the manifestations.
2. Patient history, chief complaint.
3. Physical exam, tests
What is pallative treatment?
Treats the symptoms & makes the patient comfortable.
What are the 4 phases of inflammation?
Trigger: trauma & infection
1. Histamine is released & blood flow increases as does permeability.
2. Neutrophil exudation
3. Monocyte exudation
4. Repair/resoration
What 3 things may trigger inflammation?
Chemical agents
Allergies
Pathogenic Organisms
Trauma
Foreign substances
Physical agents
Describe the WBCs found in inflammation. Which one performs phagocytosis?
Monocytes & Neutrophils perform phagocytosis.
Eosinophils (incr. with allergy)
Basophils (contain histamine)
A. Which WBCs are largest in size?
B. Which WBCs are most in quantity?
A. Monocytes
B. Neutrophils
Define inflammation
The response of living tissue to injury. Removes injured cells and debris and contains the area of injury.
What are the ways the inflammatory process may end?
1. Tissue restoration w/ varying amts. of scarring
2. Abscess formation
3. granuloma formation
4. acute inflammation
List the signs of inflammation
Local:
Redness
Heat
Swelling/edema
pain
General:
Fever
Leukocytosis (elevated WBC count)
How does chronic inflammation differ from acute?
Chronic: Exudation & repair occur together
No neutrophils
Fibrosis (scarring)
Manifestations are less severe than acute inflammation
Describe treatments for inflammation.
Anti-inflammatory drugs
Steroids
Antihistamines
Antimicrobials
Rest/gradual excercise
drainage of abscess
What are the cell types involved in cell-mediated immunity?
Two types of Activated Lymphocytes:
Cytotoxic T-cells
Supressor T-cells
What types of cells are involved in humoral immunity?
Plasma cells & memory cells produce immunoglobulins.
Describe the cell-mediated immune process.
T-Lymphocytes in the Thymus gland produce Activated Lymphocytes, which in turn produce Cytotoxic T-Cells & Supressor T-Cells.
What are the was that immunity may be acquired?
1. Active immunity: vaccine or toxoid is given. Long-lived immunity.
2. Passive immunity: pre-formed antibodies are received thru horse serum, but is short-lived. Immediate results.
Name the types of hypersensitivity reactions & give example of each.
1.Allergy: Penecillin
2.Cytotoxic: Rh disease
3.Immune Complex Mediated: Glomerulonephritis (kidneys)
Rheumatic fever (heart)
4.Cell Mediated: transplant rejection, TB skin test
Describe anaphylaxis
Systematic release of histamine causes low blood pressure & swollen airways. Life threatening allergic reaction.
Describe how AIDS affects the immune system.
Virus attaches to the CD4+ protein on T-helper cells & destroys them. Decreased T-helper cells makes patient prone to infections.
What causes AIDS & how is the agent usually spread?
1.The HIV virus is introduced.
Antibodies produced cannot control the virus.
2. ARC-AIDS Related Complex: enlarged lymph nodes, chronic fever & pain.
3. Full-blown AIDS:
When T-helper cell count drops to <500.

Spread by body fluids: blood, semen, vaginal secretions.
Define autoimmunity and give an example of an autoimmune disease.
Definition: Antibodies form against body tissues
Examples: MS, Lupus, Rheumatoid Arthritis
Define the 4 abnormalities of cell growth.
1. Hyperplasia: # of cells increase
2. Hypertrophy: size of cells increase
3. Metaplasia: size & # stay the same but cell morphology changes
4. Neoplasia: New type of cellulor growth in a tissue (tumor)
Compare & contrast benign & malignant tumors:
Benign: relatively harmless
Malignant: cancerous...grow & spread throughout the body.
Malignant neoplasia = cancer
A. Name a benign tumor found in cartlidge.
B. Name a malignant tumor found in bone.
A. Chondroma
B. Osteoma
Give examples of each etiology of malignant neoplasia
Chemicals used in industry: cosmetics, plastics
Smoking
Genetic predisposition: breast cancer
Viruses: breast cancer
Environmental agents: air/water pollution
Radiation: UV rays,xrays
Hormones: testosterone>prostate cancer
What are the drawbacks to surgical treatment of malignancies?
Surgery works if it has not metastasized. If the body is weakened by chemo & radiation therapy, surgery is more risky.
What two types of treatment for malignancies are often combined?
Chemotherapy & radiation therapy
Describe Down's Syndrome
21st pair of chromosomes divides abnormally. Trisomy-21.
Describe Klinefelter's Syndrome
Trisomy-23: 23rd pair divides abnormally. XXY
Describe Turner's Syndrome
Monosomy-23 = XO
45 Chromosomes, instead of 46.
How do autosomal recessive diseases usually occur?
When heterozygotes mate
Give three examples of autosomal recessive disease.
Cystic fibrosis
Sickel Cell Anemia
PKU
Describe how sex-linked inherited disease usually occurs and give an example.
From mother to son.
Example: hemophilia
What is the usual etiology for congenital defects?
Anything that interferes with intrauterine development.
Do the offspring of parents who had a congenital defect have a greater chance than usual of having the same congenital defect that the parent(s) had?
NO.
The child will not pass the defect on to his/her children!
Describe the humoral immune process
B Lymphocytes interact with plasma cells and memory cells to form immunoglobulins (antibodies).