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12 Cards in this Set

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Know the organs (and accessory organs) of the digestive system and their main function(s).
The digestive system consists of organs that work together to feed the body. It includes a series of hallow organs:
-mouth
-pharynx
-esophagus
-stomach
-small intestines
-large intestines
-rectum
-anus
The digestive system also includes 4 accessory organs:
-salivary glands
-liver
-gallbladder
-pancreas
What is the function of the mouth?
Teeth in the mouth chew food into small pieces for swallowing. The tongue pushes, mashes, and positions foods we are chewing. The tongue also has tastes foods. Saliva begins the process of digestion. Saliva moistens food to help slide down. Saliva contains ENZYMES (salivary amylase) which begins to break down CARBOHYDRATES. Bicarbonate keeps PH levels in our mouths normal and helps enzymes to work better.
How do the teeth, tongue and saliva contribute to the function(s) of the mouth?
The teeth helps in chew food into small pieces for swallowing. The tongue pushes, mashes, tastes, and postions foods we are chewing. The saliva moistens foods, helps slide food down and contains enzymes (amylase) which begins the breakdown of foods, bicarbonate keeps the PH levels in our mouths normal and lets the enzymes work better.
What is the function of the Pharynx?
After the food has been chewed and swallowed it is pushed into the throat or Pharynx. The Pharynx is a tube that can lead either to the lungs or to the stomach. When food is swallowed a small flap called the Epiglottis opens up and guides the food into the Pharynx and not to the lungs. After this swallowing reflex is involuntary. Next the food goes into the Esophagus.
What is the function of the Esophagus?
The esophagus is a muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach. The food now called "Bolus" moves via peristalsis. The muscles in the esophagus squeezes and relaxes pushing the bolus down. The lining of the esophagus releases mucus to lubricate and help food slide easier. The Sphincter muscle between the end of the esophagus and stomach opens and closes to let the food go into the stomach and also prevents acids from the stomach coming up.
What is the function of the stomach?
The stomach is a muscular flexible sac that continues the digestion of food.
The stomach has 3 major functions:
1-Food storage. It stores the food until it can be digested and it also mixes food via peristalsis.
2-Digestion. Chemical digestion of proteins by enzymes and acid. The walls/Mucosa of the stomach secretes 3 "gastric juices" mucus, acids(HCL-hydrochloric acid) and pepsinogen(enzymes).
As soon as the pepsinogen comes in contact with Hydrochloric acid it turns into a protein-digesting enzyme called "pepsin". Mucus protects cells of the stomach from acids and enzymes.
The lower Pyloric sphincter at the bottom of the stomach opens and shuts to release nutrients 1 tablespoon at a time into small intestines.
Explain Peristalsis.
Peristalsis propels food forward. It begins with a lump of food called bolus, stretches a portion of the GI tract, causing smooth muscle behind it to contract. Contractions push the food forward and continues on.
Why are the lower esophageal sphincter and pyloric sphincter important?
The pyloric sphincter at the bottom of stomach opens and shuts to release nutrients 1 tsp at a time into the Small intestines.
The esophageal Sphincter is a flap at the end of the esophagus that opens and closes to either let food go into the stomach or air into the lungs. Both sphincters prevents acid back flow into esophagus and stomach.
Which organs are involved in digestion? absorption? elimination?
digestion: Mouth, stomach, small intestines.
Absorption: Small intestines, Large intestines.
Elimination: Large Intestines, rectum, anus.
Which organs produce enzymes? What's the name of enzyme(s), and what do they break down?
Mouth: amylase - breakdown of carbohydrates.
Stomach: Pepsinogen (+acid) -pepsin -breakdown of proteins.
Small intestines: peptides - breakdown of proteins.
Liver: bile - breakdown of lipis (fats & oils).
Pancreas: 1)Protease - breakdown of protein. 2)Lipase - breakdown of lipids. 3) Amylase - breakdown of carbohydrates.
why is mucus important in the stomach?
The mucus in the stomach protects/lines the cell walls of the stomach from enzymes and acids.
Why are folds in the villi, and microvilli important to the small intestines?
The folds help increase the surface area and food has a better chance of getting caught in the folds. The villi and microvilli are finger like projections that help with the absorption of the nutrients.
The Microvilli has:
-blood vessels that absorb carbs & proteins.
-lymph vessels that absorb lipids.
Both vessels go into blood circulation.