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75 Cards in this Set

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In the proliferative stage, these glands increase in number
Uterine glands
In the proliferative stage, these arteries elongate...
Spinal Arteries
When the sperm binds/penetrates zona pellucida, acrosomal enzymes are released, the most important is...
Acrosin, a serine protease
When the sperm contacts the membrane of the secondary oocyte, this reaction occurs...
Cortical Reaction
In the cortical reaction, these lysosomes are released ___ and the ___ and ___ become impermeable to other sperm.
In the cortical reaction Cortical Granules are released. The Zona Pellucida and the Oocyte membrane become Impermeable.
True or False, when the sperm enters the cytoplasm of the secondary oocyte, the mitochondria of both the sperm and the oocyte is present.
False, only the mitochondria of the secondary oocyte is present in its cytoplasm.
Karogamy is...
The fusion of nuclei of two cells
When does the sperm nucleus enlarge?
When the sperm and oocyte cell membrane fuse, the sperm nucleus enlarges to form the Male Pronucleus
When does the secondary oocyte continue meiosis II?
When the sperm and oocyte cell membrane fuse, the secondary oocyte completes meiosis II
When the secondary oocyte complete meiosis II (after fusion of sperm and oocyte cell membr) this occurs in the nucleus of the mature ovum...
Formation of female pronucleus
oocyte containing male and female pronuclei is called...
Ootid
Male and female pronuclei fuse forming a...
Zygote
When the sperm binds/penetrates the zona pellucida, what reaction occurs?
Acrosomal Reaction
Cleavage is an ____ in which _____ are the object/thing involved.
Clevage is an action, a series of mitotic divisions of teh zygote.
Blastomeres (cells) are the objects which rapidly increase in number.
The entire whole of the dividing blastomeres of the zygote is called...
Blastula
Cleavage occurs...
as the zygote passes along uterine tube toward the uterus.
Clevage begins
about 30 hrs after fertilization
After the 8-cell stage blastomeres...
tightly align themselves against ea other to form a compact ball of cells (compaction)
_____ is a cell surface adhesion protein on blastomere's surface
Uvomorulin, it is involved in compaction
The morula develops when...
there are 12-32 blastomeres
Blastocystic cavity is...
a fluid-filled space that appears inside the morula
How does the fluid get into the blastocystic cavity?
It comes from the uterine cavity through the zona pellucida
The conceptus/Morula is called ___
blastocyst
process in which the blastocystic cavity forms is...
Cavitation
Inner cell mass, called the ___ in the blastocyst becomes...
Called the Embryoblast, becomes the embryo
the outer cell mass of the blastocyst is now called ___ and it becomes...
Now called trophoblast. It becomes the fetal part of the placenta
_____ must degenerate in order for implantation to occur. ***
Zona Pellucida ***
When the zona pellucida degenerates, the blastocyst is now called...
Late blastocyst
Trophoblastic cells secrete trypsin-like enzymes so that this can occur...
blastocyst can "hatch" from zona pellucida
Implantation occurs when?
approx 6 days after fertilization
During implantation, where does the blastocyst settle?
On the posteriosuperior wall of the uterus
What does the trophoblast do when the blastocyst is implanted?
Immediately proliferates and differentiates.
What 2 layers does the trophoblast differentiat into?
1. Cytotrophoblast (inner layer)
2. Syncytiotrophoblast (outer layer)
what type of nucleus does the syncytiotrophoblast have?
multinucleated protoplasmic mass, in which NO cell boundaries can be seen
What area is located near the syncytiotrophoblast proliferation? ***
The Embryonic Pole ***
The syncytiotrophoblast does this__ to ensure that the blastocyst is implanted. ***
It secretes enzymes that erode into maternal tissues, enabling the blastocyst to burrow into endometrium ***
On the surface of the embryoblast, this develops _____ ***
Hypoblast ***
Hypoblast is also called ***
primary endoderm ***
The hypoblast arises due to ***
De-lamination of blastomeres from embryoblast ***
hypoblast faces...
blastocystic cavity
After the sperm gets through corona radiata, which specific structure doe sit bind to on the zona pellucida?
ZP3 receptors
Mitotic divisions of a zygote is called?
Clevage
Clevage of the zygote forms?
blastocyst
The blastula consists of increasingly smaller cells called?
Blastomeres
What do blastomeres form?
Morula
Name the process by which a morula is formed and the main glycoprotein involved.
The morula is formed by a proces called COMPACTION.

The main glycoprotein involved is uvomorulin
Fluid secreted within morula forms?
Blastocystic cavity
What is the conceptus called once a blastocoele exists?
Early Blastocyst
What are the two parts of the blastocyst?
Trophoblast & Embryoblast
Which part of the blastocyst forms the embryo?
The Embryoblast
What must be removed from the blastocyst before implantation can occur?
Zona Pellucida
What are the two parts of the trophoblast and which part is involved in implantation?
1. Cytotrophoblast

2. Syncytiotrophoblast --involved in implantation
Where do the cytotrophoblasts migrate?
They migrate into mass of syncytiotrophoblast, where the fuse and lose thier membranes
What is the name of the hormone produced by syncytiotrophoblasts?
Human chorionic gondadotrophin (hCG)
What role does human chorionic gonadotrophin play in the body?
It maintains the hormonal activity of the corpus luteum in ovary during pregnancy.
What is the corpus luteum?
it is an endocrine gland that secretes estrogen and progesterone to maintain the pregnancy
What hormone is tested to see if a woman is pregnant?
human chorionic gonadotrophin
As implantation occurs, this appears in the embryoblast
Amniotic Cavity
Surrouding the amniotic cavity is a membrane called...
Amnion
The amnion is formed from these cells...
amnioblasts
What are 3 functions of the amniotic fluid
1. cushion for fetus
2. Assists w/dilation of cervix during labor
3. used for analysis of fetal well being
What is an amniocentesis?
Withdrawal of amniotic fluid to asses alpha fetal protein
Embryoblasts differentiates into two distinct layers:
1. Epiblast (dorsal/columnar cells)

2. Hypoblast (ventral/cuboidal cells; primitive endoderm)
epiblast and hypoblast form this structure...
Bilaminar Embryonic Disk
Hypoblast forms...
exocoelomic membrane -- exocolomic cavity/primitive yolk sac/umbilical vesicle
The hypoblasts are shaped like this ___ and eventually form ___ which is the future site of the mouth
Prechordal plate
Maternal blood flows in and out of this structure_____
Lucunar network
Embyroblasts recieve nutrition via ______ only during the implantation stage
Diffusion
The site of the first blood cells and germ cells _____
Secondary umbilical vesicle
Precursor of the umbilical cord is ____
the extraembryonic somatic mesoderm
_____ covers the secondary umbilical vesicle (yolk sac)
Extraembryonic visceral mesoderm
Extraembryonic somatic mesoderm lines...
the trophoblast and covers the amnion
The extraembryonic visceral mesoderm...
surrounds umbilical vescicle
____ is vital in formation of placenta
Chorion
extraembryonic coelom is now called ___ when the extraembryonic mesoderm has developmed
Chorionic Cavity