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148 Cards in this Set

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When does body growth taper off?
In early childhood
On average how many inches in height are added and pounds of weight each year?
2-3 inches and 5lbs
Growth centers where cartilage hardens into bone
epiphyses
X rays of epiphyses enable doctors to estimate children's what?
Skeletal age (progress towards physical maturity)
Are girls or boys ahead in physical development? (losing teeth earlier)
Girls
How many new epiphyses are there between 2 and 6?
45
When do toddlers start to loose teeth?
By the end of preschool years
What happens when brain growth increases in children?
Hemispheres begin to lateralize
How much does the brain increase between the ages 2 and 6?
70% of its adult weight to 90%
What area of the brain is for planning/organization development?
Frontal lobe
Language skills that increase at an astonishing pace, are housed where?
Left hemisphere
Spatial skills, such as giving directions, drawing pictures, and reading maps, develop over childhood, are housed where?
Right hemisphere
What 2 areas of the brain develop most?
Cerebellum and corpus callosum
Reflects greater capactiy of one side of the brain to carry out skilled motor action
Handedness
The hemisphere of the cerebral cortex responsible for skilled motor action and other important abilities
Dominant cerebral hemisphere
90% of people in Western nations are right handed people, language and hand control are house where?
Left hemisphere
10% of people in Western nations are left handed, where is language housed?
Both hemispheres. Left handers tend to be less strongly lateralized than right handers
Handedness may be genetic bias, but mostly affected by what?
Experience ( in womb, and/or practice with hands after born)
Located at the rear and base of the brain.
A structure that aids in balance and control of body movement
Cerebellum
What do connections between the cerebellum and cerebral cortex support?
Gains in motor coordination (hopscotch, throw a ball), and thinking
An inner brain structure.
Plays a vital role in memory and in images of space that help us find our way.
Hippocampus
A large bundle of fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres.
Supports smooth coordination of movements on both sides of the body and integration of many aspects of thinking
Corpus callosum
What influences growth by controlling the body's production of hormones?
Genes
Located at the base of the brain.
Plays a critical role by releasing two hormones that induce growth.
Pituitary gland
What are the two hormones released by the pituitary gland?
Growth hormone and Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
Hormone released by the pituitary gland.
Necessary for development of body tissues except the central nervous system and genitals
Growth hormone
Hormone released by pituitary gland.
Prompts the thyroid gland in the neck to release thyoxine(which is necessary for brain development and for GH to have its full impact on body size)
Thyroid stimulating hormone
Children with no or little (GH or TSH) when born will be mentally retarded, but children born with little/no (GH or TSH) can get treated and will be fine.
TSH; GH
Preschoolers require a higher-quality diet, including foods adults eat, but do they eat more or less?
Less
What interacts with poorly fed children's malnutritious diet. Happens in a vicious spiral, with potentially severe consequences
Disease
What does a poor diet do to a toddler?
Suppresses the immune system, making children far more susceptible to disease.
Sick children are given a solution of glucose, salt, and water that quickly replaces fluids the body loses from diarrhea.
Oral Rehydration Therapy
Some parents do not want to get their children vaccined because the media suggested there is a link between the measles- mumps- rubella- vaccine and a rise in the number of children with this disease.
Is it said to be true?
Autism.
No
What is the leading cause of childhood mortality in industrialized nations?
Unintentional injuries (auto and traffic accidents, drownings, and burns)
How much more are boys to be injured than girls?
1.5 times
Why does appetite decrease in early childhood?
Because of slower growth
What type of treatments can help with diarrhea ?
Zinc and Oral Rehydration Therapy
Why do many American children lack a full set of vaccines?
The costs, the parents' schedule's, and misconception of vaccines
Births to teens not ready for parenthood, poverty, single parenthood, gender, and temperament are all factors that contribute to what?
Childhood injuries
As a result of their bodies becoming more streamlined and less top heavy, their center of gravity shifts downward and what greatly improves?
Their balance
At what age do children gain smooth and rhythmic motor skills?
2
At what age do upper and lower body skills combine into more refined actions (steering and pedaling a bike)?
5
Self help, such as dressing and eating, and drawing and painting are all examples of what?
Fine motor skills
What are the 3 sequences of the average drawing progression?
Scribbles, first representational forms, and more realistic drawings
A progression of drawing skills during the second year. Children's rather than the resulting scribbles contain the intended representation (makes crayon hop and says it's a rabbit)
Scribbles
A progression of drawing skills, where pictures represent recognizable objects at around age 3. They draw boundaries and people between 3 and 4 (the universal "tadpole")
First representational forms
Between ages 3 and 5, greater realism in drawings develops gradually, as perception, language, memory, and fine motor capacities improve
More realistic drawings
Between what ages do children realize that writing stands for language?
4-6
Preschoolers' first attempts to print include what?
Their name, often only the first letter
What are some differences in boys and girls at age 5?
Boys have greater muscle mass, force, and power (jump higher, throw ball further).
Girls have better fine motor skills and gross motor skills (require combo of good balance and foot movement). Have better physical maturity
What should adults in young children's motor activities be focused on?
Fun rather than perfecting the correct form
Genetics (size and shape), gender, practice, and caregiver encouragement, are all examples of what?
Individual differences in motor skills
A stage in Piaget's theory, which spans the years 2 to 7. The most obvious change when children move to this stage is an extraordinary increase in representational(symbolic) activity.
Preoperational stage
What did Piaget find to be the most flexible means of mental representation?
Language
An example of the development of representation in early childhood.
Piaget believed that through pretending, children practice and strengthen newly acquired schemes
Make believe play
With age, what becomes more detached from real life conditions, less self-centered, and includes more complex combinations of schemes?
Make believe play
After what age do children pretend with less realistic toys (a block for a telephone)?
2
The make believe play with others that is under way around age 2 and increases rapidly during the next few years.
Children combine schemes there's of peers.
Here children display awareness that make believe is a representational activity
Sociodramatic play
What are some benefits of make believe play?
Children practice representational schemes, reflect on thinking, they control behavior, take another's perspective, gain in social,language, and literacy skills, improve attention, memory, and logical reasoning, and strengthen imagination and creativity.
Viewing a symbolic object as both an object in its own right and a symbol.
Mastered around age 3.
Adult teaching can help
Dual representation
Experiences with diverse symbols (photos, picture books, make believe, and maps) helps preschoolers appreciate what?
That one object can stand for another
What describes mental actions that obey logical rules
Operations
According to Piaget, young children are not capable of what? Rather, their thinking is rigid, limited to one aspect of a situation at a time, strongly influenced by the way things appear at the moment.
Operations
The most fundamental deficiency of preoperational thinking.
Failure to distinguish the symbolic viewpoints of others from one's own.
Children's first mentally represent the world from their own viewpoint and assume others perceive, think, and feel the same way.
Egocentrism
The belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intentions.
Animistic thinking
Piaget argued that preschoolers' egocentric bias prevents them from what, or reflecting on and revising their faulty reasoning in response to their physical and social worlds.
Accommodating
Refers to the idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their are outward appearance changes
Conservation
What kind of children say the amount of water has changed when 2 glasses of water are the same, but one is dumped into a bowl?
Preoperational children
When children focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features.
Centration
The inability to conserve highlights several related aspects of preoperational children's thinking. There are 4, what are they?
1. Their understanding if characterized by centration.
2. Children easily distracted by the perceptual appearance of objects.
3. Children treat initial and final states as unrelated objects, ignoring the dynamic transformation between them.
4. Irreversibility
An inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point.
Irreversibility
Preoperational children have difficulty with this.
The organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences
Hierarchical classification
Describe Piaget's class inclusion problem
Children are shown 16 flowers, 4 are blue and 12 are red. Asked "which are there more red flowers or flowers?" the preoperational child responds "More red flowers." failing to realize that both red and blue flowers are included in the category flowers.
Where does animistic thinking come from?
Incomplete knowledge, not a belief that inanimate objects are alive
During second and third years, children global categories differentiate, they form what kind of categories?
Ones at an intermediate level of generality, like chairs, tables, and beds.
Basic-level categories
By third year, children move back and forth between basic level categories and what other type of categories? Such as furniture?
General categories
After switching back and forth from basic level categories to general categories, children break down basic level categories into what? Such as rocking chairs, desk chairs, bluebirds, and cardinals?
Subcategories
Can children solve appearance vs reality problems better visually or verbally?
Verbally
Piaget assumes abrupt change, how dodo most experts believe change is?
Gradual
When preschoolers play, that talk out loud to themselves, expressing their thoughts in whatever form they happen to occur, regardless of whether a listener can hear or understand.
Piaget's egocentric speech
The internal verbal dialogues we carry on while thinking and acting in everyday situations.Vygotsky viewed children's speech to themselves as self-guidance.
Inner speech
Children's self directed speech now called this instead of Piaget's egocentric speech.
Private speech
Where children's learning takes place.
A range of tasks too difficult for the child to do alone but possible with the help of adults and more skilled peers.'
Accounts for learning across situations and cultures
Zone of proximal development
Adjusting the support offered during a teaching session to fit the child's current level of performance.
Supports children's learning
Scaffolding
Adult cognitive support (teaching in small steps and offering strategies) predicts gains in what?
Children's thinking
Adult emotional support (offering encouragement and allowing the child to take over the task) predicts what?
the child's effort
Vygotsky saw this as the ideal social context for fostering cognitive development in early childhood.
He saw it as a unique, broadly influential zone of proximal development where children try out a wide variety of challenging activities and acquire new competencies
Make believe play
A broader concept than scaffolding.
Refers to shared endeavors between more expert and less expert participants, without specifying the precise features of communication.
Babara Rogoff suggested this to account for children's divers ways of learning through involvement with others.
Guided participation
This theory helps explain cultural diversity in cognition,emphasizes the importance of teaching, focuses on language deemphasizes observation, says little about biological contributions to cognition, and its vague in explanation of change. Who's theory?
Vygotsky's Theory
What does information processing focus on that children use to transform stimuli flowing into their mental system?
Mental strategies
During early childhood, children become better at this,
Thinking out of a sequence of acts ahead of time and allocating attention accordingly to reach a goal
Planning
Who helps children plan more effectively?
Parents
The ability to tell whether a stimulus is the same as or similar to one they have seen before
Recognition memory
When the child generates a mental image of the absent stimulus
Recall
At a young age, which is poorer (Recognition or recall)?
Recall- at 2, they can recall no more than 1 or 2 items.
at 4, 3 or 4 items
Better recall in early development is strongly associated with what, which greatly enhances long lasting representations of past experiences
Language development
Deliberate mental activities that improve our chances of remembering
Memory strategies
Rehearse (repeat items over and over), Organizing (grouping items together that are alike), and elaboration are all examples of what that preschoolers' don't use?
Memory strategies
General descriptions of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation.
Preschoolers' do use this.
Scripts
These have a greater elaboration with age.
They help children organize and interpret everyday experiences. They can be used to predict what will happen in the future.
Scripts
Representations of personally meaningful, one time events.
Long lasting representations of one time events.
Improves with cognitive, conversational skills
Autobiographical memory
Parents help develop 2 styles of children's autobiographical narratives. What are they?
Elaborative and Repetitive
A narrative style where the parent follows the child's lead, asks varied questions, adds info to the child's statements, and volunteers their own recollections and evaluations of events.
Elaborative style
A narrative style where the parent provides little info and keeps repeating the same question.
Repetitive style
What narrative style (elaborative or repetitive) show that preschoolers' who experience this style recall more info about past events, and they produce more organized and detailed personal stories when followed up 2 years later?
Elaborative stle
"Thinking about thought"
Awareness and understanding of various aspects of thought.
Develops with Theory of mind
Metacognition
As 2 years old vocab expands, their first verbs include such words as what?
Think, remember, and pretend
When does awareness of mental life come into play?
Infancy through age 3
From age 4 and on, children understand that both _______ and ______ determine behavior.
Beliefs and desires
Beliefs that do not represent reality accurately
False beliefs
Mastery of false beliefs happens at what age? And what does it influence?
4-6 and it influences cultural and social factors
What all contributes to how children develop a theory of mind as such a young age?
Language, cognitive abilities, make believe play, and social experiences
How do children master false beliefs?
With the ability to inhibit inappropriate responses, think flexibly, planning, and suppress an irrelevant response
The tendency to assume that others share their own knowledge and beliefs
Irrelevant response
Findings suggest that preschoolers view the mind as what kind of container of info?
Passive
Children's active efforts to construct literacy knowledge through informal experiences
(ex: children playing grocery and writing aple-banas 5 cents)
Emergent literacy
At what age do children think that a single letter stands for a whole word or that each letter in a name represents a separate name?
And at what age do children figure out that letters are parts of words and are linked to sounds in systemic ways?
Young preschoolers, and between 5 and 7
The ability to reflect on and manipulate the sound structure of spoken language.
Phonological awareness
What promotes many aspects of language and literacy development? Where adults discuss storybook content with preschoolers
Interactive reading
A order relationship between quantities. Between 14 and 16 months.
(ex: 2 is bigger than 1, 3 is bigger than 2)
Ordinality
At what age have most children mastered the meaning of numbers up to ten, counting correctly, and grasping cardinality?
Age 3.5-4
When children count, the last number in a counting sequence indicates the quantity of items in a set
Cardinality
Stimulation with toys, games, and books for reading, physical organization,pride, affection, warmth, social modeling, variety, and no physical punishment are all examples of what?
A high quality home environment
What percent on young children are enrolled in preschool or child care?
60%
Program where teachers provide a variety of activities from which children select, and much learning takes place through play
Chile-centered programs
Program where teachers structure children's learning teaching letters, numbers, colors, shapes, and other academic skills through formal lessons, often using repetition and drill.
Academic programs
An extensive federal program that began in 1965, provides children with a year or two of preschool, along with nutritional and health services, Parent involvement is central to their philosophy
Project Head Start
In child care centers, teacher is responsible for how many children? In family child care?
no more than 8-10; no more than 6
What is the group size in child care centers and preschools?
No more than 18-20 children with 2 teachers
What percent of US children live in a home with one or more computers?
85%
What is the most widely viewed children's program in the world?
Sesame Street
What are dome dangers of educational media programs? Possible benefits?
Dangers-aggression, ethnic/gender stereotypes,consumerism, time away from other activities
Benefits-learning/make believe play,educational shows, slow easy stories, and prosocial behavior
What are benefits of word processing? Games? and programming languages?
support emergent literacy, practice basic skills, and problem solving, metacognition, and collaboration
A process where children can connect new words with their underlying concepts after only a brief encounter
Fast-mapping
What do children do, as young as 3, to fill in for new words they have not yet learned, by using ones they already know (such as plant man for gardener)
Coin new words
Preschoolers also extend their language meanings through what (such as fire engine in my tummy for a stomachache)?
Metaphors
Children assume that words refer to entirely separate (nonoverlapping) categories
Mutual exclusivity bias
Between what ages do English speaking children apply the subject-verb- object structure broadly, to newly acquired verbs?
3.5-4
After children for three word sentences, they make small additions and changes to words that enable us to express meanings flexibly and efficiently. What are they?
They use plural forms, propositions, form various tenses of the verb 'to be'
An error where children overextend the rules to words that are exceptions.
Ex: my toy care breaked
Between ages 2-3
Overregularization
At what age do children master complex structure questions and passive form sentences?
5
Effective and appropriate communication.
Practical social side of language.
Pragmatics
At what age can children have effective conversations? (taking turns and responding appropriately)?
2
At what age do children adjust their speech to fit the age, sex, and social status of their listener?
4
When do young children's conversations appear less mature?
When they cannot see their listener (telephone)
Between what ages do both conversing and giving directions over the phone improve?
4-8
Restructuring inaccurate speech into correct form
Recasts
Elaborating on children's speech
Expansions