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99 Cards in this Set

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The energetic pursuit of meaningful achievement in his/her culture
Industriousness
Erickson's psychological conflict of middle childhood that is resolved positively when children develop a sense of competence at useful skills and tasks.
Industry vs inferiority
Reflected in the pessimism of children who have little confidence in their ability to do things well.
Family, environment, teachers, and peers can contribute to negative feelings
Inferiority
Developing a sense of competence at useful skills.
School provides many opportunities
Industry
Inferring others' attitudes toward the child
Perspective taking
Judgements of one's own appearance, abilities, and behavior in relation to those of others
Social comparison
As children internalize others' expectations and make social comparisons, they form this.
They use it to evaluate their real self
Ideal self
Asian parents stress harmonious interdependence and Western cultures stress what?
Independence and self-assertion
At what ages do children emphasize competencies instead of specific behaviors?
8-11
What are the 4 broad self-evaluations for self-esteem?
Academic competence, social competence, physical/athletic competence, and physical appearance
Children whose parents use what kind of child rearing style, feel especially good about themselves?
Authoritative
What is the best way to foster a positive, secure self-image to children?
To encourage children to strive for worthwhile goals
Our common everyday explanations for the causes of behavior
Attributions
Children high in academic self-esteem and motivation make these attributions.
Crediting their success to ability- a characteristic they can improve through trying hard and can count on when facing new challenges. And they attribute failure to factors that can be changed or controlled, such as insufficient effort or a very difficult task.
Mastery-oriented attributions
Mastery-oriented attribution children take on what kinds of approach to learning? Industrious or Inferiority?
Industrious
Children who develop this kind of attribution, attribute their failures, not their successes, to ability. When they succeed, they conclude that external factors, such as luck, are responsible. Unlike their mastery oriented counterparts, they believe that ability is fixed and cannot be improved by trying hard
Learned helplessness
Learned helplessness children show a sense of what? Industrious or inferiority?
Inferiority
Do girls or boys tend to receive messages from teachers and parents that their ability is at fault when they do not do well, and negative stereotypes reduce their interest and effort?
Girls
Do Asians or Americans attend more to success with children? And do Asians or Americans focus more on success because it enhances self esteem?
Asians; Americans
Intervention that encourages learned helpless children to believe that they can overcome failure by exerting more effort.
Attribution retraining
What should parents encourage to boost self esteem?
Goal setting
American cultural values focus on what? Which can lead to overindulgence.
Self
In middle childhood, self conscious emotions of _______ and ____ become clearly governed by personal responsibility
Pride and guilt
What do pride and guilt do for children?
Pride motivates children to take on further challenges whereas guilt prompts them to make amends and to strive for self- improvements
Gains in this are supported by cognitive development and social experiences, especially adults' sensitivity to children's feelings and willingness to discuss emotions
Emotional understanding
At what age do children tend to explain emotions by referring to internal states and become aware that they can experience more than one emotion at a time?
Age 8
What are the 2 general strategies at age 10 where children manage emotion?
Problem-centered coping and emotion-centered coping
Coping strategy where children appraise the situation as changeable, identify the difficulty, and decide what to do about it.
Situation changeable
Problem-centered coping
Coping strategy where children are internal, private, and aimed at controlling distress when little can be done about an outcome. When problem solving does not work
Emotion-centered coping
A feeling of being in control of their emotional experience.
Having a positive outlook on life
Emotional Self-efficacy.
The capacity to imagine what other people may be thinking and feeling.
Support self concept and self esteem
Perspective taking
5 stage sequence that describes changes in perspective taking skill, based on children's and adolescent's responses to social dilemmas in which characters have differing info and opinions about an event
Selman's stages of perspective taking
Good _______ -__________ are more likely to display empathy and sympathy and the handle difficult situations effectively- among the reasons they are better liked by peers
Good perspective takers
What level is this on Selman's stages of perspective taking?
Children recognize that self and other can have different thought and feelings, but they frequently confuse the 2.
What age?
Level 0 Undifferentiated ; age 3-6
What level is this on Selman's stages of perspective taking?
Children understand that different perspectives may result b/c ppl have access to different info.
What age?
Level 1 Social informational; Age 4-9
What level is this on Selman's stages of perspective taking?
Children can "step into another person's shoes" and view their own thoughts, feelings, and behavior from the other person's perspective. They also recognize that others can do the same.
What age?
Level 2: Self reflective; Age 7-12
What level is this on Selman's stages of perspective taking?
Children can step outside a two person situation and imagine how the self and other are viewed from the point of view of a third party.
What age?
Level 3: Third party perspective; Age 10-15
What level is this on Selman's stages of perspective taking?
Individuals understand that 3rd party perspective taking can be influenced by one or more systems of larger societal values
What age?
Level 4: Societal; Age 14-adult
Collectives that generate unique values and standards for behavior and a social structure of leaders and followers.
Peer groups
These organize on the basis on proximity ( being in the same classroom) similarity in sex, ethnicity, popularity, and aggression.
Peer groups
Damages peer relationships via exclusions, gossip, and friend manipulations.
Example=mean girls
Relational Aggression
Peer groups provide children with insight into larger social structures, but these contribute to the development of trust and sensitivity
Friendships
What becomes friendships defining feature, once it forms?
Trust
A mutually agrees on relationship in which children like each other's personal qualities and respond to one another's needs and desires
Friendship
At what age do friendships become more selective? Children can only name a handful of good friends, and their friendships last longer?
Age 8-9
What are aggressive girl friendships like? Boys?
Girls- full of jealousy, conflict, and betrayal.
Boys- frequent expression of anger, coercive statements, physical attacks, and enticements to rule breaking behavior
Children who bring kindness and compassion to the friendship will do what to it?
Children who bring aggression and hostility will do what?
Kindness=strengthens relationship
Aggression= antisocial acts
Refers to likeability- the extent to which a child is viewed by a group of age mates, such as classmates, as a worthy social partner.
Peer Acceptance
How do researchers assess peer acceptance? 2 ways
1. Social preference
2.Social Prominence
A way to access peer acceptance. Researcher asks child to identify classmates whom they "they very much" or "like very little"
Social Preference
A way to assess peer acceptance.
Children's judgements of whom most of their classmates admire
Social prominence
What are the 4 general categories of peer acceptance?
1. Popular children
2. Rejected children
3. Controversial children
4. Neglected children
Children who get many positive votes (well liked)
Popular children
Children who get many negative votes ( are disliked)
Rejected children
Children who get a large number of positive and negative votes ( both liked and disliked)
Controversial children
Children who are seldom mentioned, either positively or negatively
Neglected children
What are the 2 categories of popular children?
Popular prosocial and popular antisocial
Popular children that combine academic and social competence.
they perform well in school and communicate with peers in sensitive, friendly, cooperative ways
Popular prosocial children
Popular children taht are admired for the socially adept yet belligerent behavior.
Include "tough" boys- athletically skilled but poor students who cause trouble and defy adult authority- and relationally aggressive boys and girls who enhance their own status by ignoring, excluding, and spreading rumors
Popular antisocial children
What are the 2 types of rejected children?
Rejected aggressive children and rejected withdrawn children
Rejected children who show high rates of conflict, physical and relational aggression, and hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive behavior.
Most of rejected children are this kind
Rejected aggressive children
Rejected children who are passive and socially awkward. Timid
Rejected withdrawn children
By the end of middle childhood, children regard gender stereotyping as socially rather than what influenced?
Biologically
Children become adult like for stereotyping at what age?
11
From 3-6th grade, boys (strengthen/decline) their identification with "masculine" personality traits, and girls identification with "feminine" traits (strengthens/declines)?
Strengthen; declines
The degree to which the child feels he/she "fits in" with others of the same gender
Gender typicality
The degree to which the child feels satisfied with his/her gender assignment
Gender conentedness
The degree to which the child feels parents and peers disapprove of his/her gender related traits
Felt pressure to conform to gender roles
Why do black Americans and latino Americans feel more pressure to feel more pressure to be associated with gender groups? they are collectivists
B/c they are the minority
A form of supervision in which parents exercise general oversight while letting children take charge of moment-moment decision making
Coregulation
The child who gets less parental affection, more disapproval, or fewer material resources is likely to be what?
Resentful
What increases siblings' awareness of each other's perspectives and reduces animosity?
Providing parents with training in mediation- how to get siblings to lay down ground rules, clarify their points of disagreement and common ground, and discuss possible solutions
What type of children have higher self esteem and achievement motivation, do better in school, and attain higher grade levels of education? (children with siblings or only children)
Only children
How many US children live in a single parent household? Mostly with mothers, but with fathers has increased to 12%
1/4
2/3 of divorced parents marry again and how many children experience another major change-a second divorce?
Half their children
Where is being the only child favorable at?
China
Why is peer acceptance for an only child a problem?
B/c they have a lack of practice in conflict resolution
In US the majority of single mothers with young children live in _________
Poverty
What percent of children in divorced families display severe ?
20-25%
What are some immediate consequences to parental divorce?
Instability, drop in income, conflict, parental stress, and disorganization
In mother custody families, are boys or girls at a greater risk for serious adjustment problems?
Boys
How long does it take for children to show improved adjustment after a divorce?
2 years
Who displays higher rates of early sexual activity and adolescent parenthood?
Young people who experience parental divorce
When divorced, a fathers involvement with help both boys and girls ___
Adjust
A series of meeting between divorcing adults and trained professional aimed at reducing family conflict
Divorce mediation
Gratins parents equal say in important decisions about the child's upbringing.
Becoming increasingly common
Joint custody
Ge, Natsuaki, and Conger did a study about parental divorce and children.They concluded that parental divorce predicts depressive symptoms in who (boys/girls)? And outcomes were worse when divorsce occurred before what age?
Both; 15
What percent of divorced parents remarry within a few years?
60%
Sharing a sexual relationship and a residence with a partner outside of marriage
Cohabit
Parent, stepparent, and children form a new family structure called this.
Expanded family network
Blended family
How do boys and girls react when their mother married their stepfather?
Boys- adjust quickly, welcoming stepfather
girls- react with sulky, resistant behavior
In blended families, when the mother marries again, older children and adolescents of both sexes display (more/less) problems.
More
Father- stepmother blended families leads to what?
Reduced father-child contact, children react negatively.
Girls slow to warm up, but eventually gets better
Children who are without adult supervision for some period of time after school. Estimated 7 million 5-13 year old
Self care children
In Western nations, children mention exposure to what as the most common source of their fears?
Information in the media
5% of school aged children develop this intense, unmanageable fear
Phobia
Children feel severe apprehension about attending school, often accompanied by physical complaints (dizziness, nausea)
School phobia
What are some support options for working parents?
Flexible schedules, sick leave, equal pay and opportunities and quality child care.
At what age does school phobia affected by separation of home? Particular aspects of home?
5-7 and 11-13