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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Development?
the sequence of age related changes that occurs as a person progresses from conception to death.
What is a Zygote?
one-celled organism created by the process of fertilization, the union of the egg and sperm.
What is Genotype?
actual genetic make-up,can be dominant or recessive
What is a Phenotype?
Observable characteristic ( brown eyes)
What makes a male?
what makes a female?
what are the 3 stages of the prenatal life?
What is the germinal stage?
It is the conception to 2 weeks. the zygote travels down the fallopian tube and attaches to the uteran wall and remains there. Then the process of mitosis begins (reproduce, divide, multiply)
the umblical cord and placenta are developed.
What is the Embryonic stage?
Lasts from 3-9 weeks. The major organs and systems emerge. And it is known as the most critical stage. The heart, lungs, and other vital organs are formed.
What is the Fetal stage?
This is the last months or months 3-9 of development. This completes development and makes the baby ready for life outside the womb.
What is the prenatal/critical period/optimal period, and what stage does it come in?
Its the time where an event can have its greatest impact. It occurs during the fetal stage.
What are teratogens?
Harmful substances that can effect the development of the new life.
What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome or (FAS)
A collection of congenital problems associated with a mothers excessive use of alcohol during pregnancy.
What is the APGAR score?
Way of checking the condition of the newborn.
What are the steps of the APGAR score?
1)heart beat
2)respiratory effort
3)muscle tone
4)body color
5)reflex variability
What are the 2 basic principles that govern physical motor development?
Proximodistal and cephalocaudal
What is proxidistal?
control of the body from center out to the extremeties, gaining control of the torso before the limbs
What is cephalocaudal?
Pattern of growth that proceeds in a head to toe fashion, gain control of the upper before lower.
What is maturational readiness?
operate on norms the child has to develope to a point where they can benefit from the activity they are performing.
What is temperment?
mood,energy level, and reactivity.
What are the 3 types of temperment?
1)Easy:Adjust easy to change
2)Difficult: irritability or doesn't adjust readily
3)Slow to warm up: adapts more slowly than easy but faster than difficult
What is seperation anxiety?
Emotional distress displayed by an infant when seperated from a person with whom it has formed an attachment with.
What are Piagets 4 cognitive development stages?
3)Concrete operational
4)Formal operational
What is the sensorimotor stage?
It is from birth-2years. they explore everything through 5 senses.
What is object permanence and what cognitive stage does it fall under?
Mental capacity that involves recognizing that objects continue to exist even when they are no longer visible. (out of sight out of mind). It falls under the sensorimotor.
What is imitation, and what cognitive stage does it fall under?
Mocking, mimicking, or repeating others. And it falls under the sensorimotor stage.
what is Stage #2 the pre-operational stage?
its from ages 2-6 or maybe even 7. They use symbolic thought. they can use names and words to represent people and objects.
What is egocentric and what cognitive stage does it fall under?
unable to take others points of views. the Pre-operational stage.
What is lack of conversation?
they dont realize that pyhsical quantities remain constant in spite of changes in their shape or appearance.
What is irreversible thinking?
Inability to cognitively visualize reversing an action/cannot backtrack.
What is naive realism?
Child accepts what they are told and what they see to be true or real.
What is aninamism?
Attribution of life-like qualities to inanimate objects.
What is the #3 stage of cognitive development- concrete operational?
ages 6-7 to ages 11or 12. They begin to use logical operations
What is conservation?
can conserve weight, substance, and quantity of matter. concrete operational stage.
What is reversible thinking?
Must have direct experience with it (np hypotheticals. no infinities, no what-ifs). concrete operational stage.
What is classification
Skills improve. concrete operational stage.
What is the #4 stage of cognitive development- formal operational?
Ages 11or12 and up. they are fully developed abstract thoughts.
What is reflexive thinking?
Abiltiy to think about their own thinking. formal operational stage.
What are the 3 different parenting styles?
What is authoriatarian?
Strict adherence to rigid standards. Parents excercises control. Not very democratic. no discussions or negotiations.
What is Permissive?
Has very few expectations, no guidelines, and demands very little.
What is authoritative?
MOST DESIRABLE.They are firm, consistent, democratic style. The child has input, with clear expectations, but negotiable.
What are Erik Eriksons 8 stages of psychosocial development?
1)Trust v/s mistrust
2)Autonomy v/s Shame and Doubt
3)Initiative v/s Guilt
4)Industry v/s Inferiority
5)Identity v/s Role confusion
6)Intimacy v/s Isolation
7)Generativity /vs Stagnation
8)Integrity v/s Despair
What is the stage 1, trust v/s mistrust?
begins at 1 year.Infants acquire either a sense of basic trust or a sense of mistrust. If infants are cuddled, comforted, talk to, and fed when hungry the gain trust. If these needs arent met they learn to distrust.
What is stage 2, Autonomy v/s Shame and Doubt?
Ages 2-3. Children learn to walk, talk, and do other things for themselves. Parents who encourage and reinforce these efforts can foster a sense of autonomy and independence. In contrast when parents are overprotective the child is likely to become doubtful, hesitant, and perhaps ashamed.
What is stage 3, Initiatve v/s Guilt?
Ages 3-5. Children broaden their horizons by exploring new situations and meeting new peopple. A conflict exists between childrens taking the initiative to strike out on their own, and the potential guilt they will feel if this behavior offends their parents.
What is stage 4, Industry v/s Inferiority?
Ages 6-11. Children are more involved in learning to master intellectual, social, and physical skills.If their assessments are positive they may contribute to a sense of Industry or acheivement. In contrast a poor self assessment is likely to induce feelings of inferiority.
What is stage 5, Identity v/s role confusion?
Ages 12-18.This stage is when we must integrate all of our experiences in order to develope a sense of who i am. Young people who are unable to reconcle all of their various roles into one induring stable identity experience tol confustion.
What is stage 6, Inimacy v/s Isolation?
Young adulthood. As adolescents emerge into young adulthood they now face the task of acheiving intimacy. An adult who has previously achieved a stable identity is often able to form close, meaningful relationships in which intimacy can be shared w/ significant others.With out if they have a sense of isolation.
What is stage 7, Generativity v/s stagnation
The middle years of adulthood.People who successfully resolve this conflict establish clear guidelines for their lives and are generally productive and happy within this directive framework.
What is stage 6, Integrity v/s despair?
Late Adulthood.Individuals who can relfect on a lifetime of purpose, accomplishments, and warm, intimate relationships will find ego integrity in their final years. In contrast people whose lives have been characterized by lack of purpose, dissapointments, and failures are likely to develope a strong sense of despair.
What is assimilation?
In piagets theory the process by which individuals interpret new info in accordance with existing knowledge or schemas.
what is accomodation?
In piagets theory the process of adjusting existing knowledge of that new info can fir more readily.