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108 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
puberty
a period of rapid physical and sexual maturation that occurs during adolesence
monarche
a girls first menstration
girls got there period a lot older in old times
hormones
a powerful chemical substance secreted by endocrine glands and carried through the bloodstream to the body
hypothalamus
a structure in the brain that monitors eating, drinking, and sex
pituitary gland
an imortant endocrine gland that controls growth and other glands
gonads
sex glands = testes and ovaries
sexually transmitted infections
get it from sexual contact
anorexia nervosa
get thin through starvation
bulimia nervosa
binging and purging pattern to get thin
hypothetical deductive reasoning
piagets formal operational concept that adolescents have cognitive ablility to develope hypotheses or best guesses to solve problems like algebra
adolescent egocentrism
heightened self confidence teens
imaginary audience
believe everyone is lookin at them and are just as interested in them as they are with themselves "on stage" want to be noticed
personal fable
part of egocentrism that has the sence of uniqueness and invinceibility
top dog phenomenon
the curcumstance of moving from top position in elementary school to low position in mid or junior high school (like when your the oldest in one school then become a freshmen and is the youngest in the new school)
service learning
a form of education that promotes social responsibility and service to the community
crises
Marcia's term for a period of identity development during which the adolescent is choosing
among meaningful alternatives.
commitment
Marcia's term for the part of identity development in which adolescent show a personal investment in what they are going to do .
identity diffusion
Marcia's term for adolesent who have not yet experienced a crisis ir made any commitments
identity forecloser
Marcia's term for adolesent who have made a commitment but not have experienced a crises
identity moratorium
Marcias term for adol. who are in the midst of a crises but their commitments are either absent or vague
identity acheivement
Marcia's term for adol. who have undergone a crises and have made a commitment.
individuality
consisit of 2 dimensions: self assertion (tell own point of view) and separateness ( tell people are diff from patterns)
connectedness
consists of 2 dimensions : mutuality ( sensitive and respect for other oppinions) and permiability ( open minded )
ethnic identity
an enduring basic aspect of self that includes a sense of membership inthe ethnic group and attitudes and feelings related to that membership
clique
a small group that ranges from 2 to 12 individuals and can form b/c adol. engage in similar activities
crowd
a larger group structure that clique a crowd is usually formed based on reputiation and members may or may not spend much time together.
dating scripts
the cognitive models that individuals use to guide and evaluate dating interactions
rite of passage
a ceremony or ritual that marks and individuals transition from one status to another. Most rites of passage focus on the transition of adult status.
assimilation
the absorption of ethic minority into the dominate group and lose characteristics of the ethnic group
pluralism
the coexistance of distinct ethnic and cultural groups in the same society. Individuals with pluralistic stance usually advocate that cultureal differences be maintained and appreciated.
jouvenile delinquent
an adol. who breaks the law or engages in behavior that is considered illegal.
restrained eaters
individuals who chrinically restrict their food intake
to control their weight . conscience of what they eat and feel guilty after a splurge
aerobic exercise
sustained exercise that stimilate the heart and lung activity like jogging swimming and cycling
addiction
behavior characterized by involvement with using a drug and securing its supply
disease model of addiction
view that its biologically based lifelong disease that require medical or spiritual treatment for recovery
life-process model of addiction
the view that it is not a disease but a habit and a source of gradification and security that can be underdstood un the context of social relationships and experiences.
sexually transmitted infection
disease that are contracted primarily though sex.
acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDs)
A sexually transmitted infection caused by HIV virus which destroys the bodys immune system
rape
forcible sexual intercourse with a person who does no consent to it.
date pr acquantance rape
coercive sexual activity directed at someone with whome the perpetrator is at least casually acquainted
personality type theory
John Hollands view that it is important or individuals to select a career that matches up well with their personality type.
postformal thought
a form of thought that is qualitative different from piagets formal operational thought.required reflective thinking answers can varry, truth search is ongoing,realistic thinking however emotion influence.
consentual validation
explain why people are attracted to people who are similar to them. since our own views are validated when someonce elses are similar to our own
matching hypothesis
we prefer a more attractive person but in the long run we end up with someone closer to our own level
friendship
a form of close relationship that invovles enjoyment, acceptance, trust, respect, mutual assistance, confiding, understanding, and spontaneity
leaving home and becoming a single
the first stage in the family life cycle it involves launghing
launching
the process in which youth move into adulthood and exit their family of origin
new couple
forming s new couple is the 2nd stage in family life cycle. 2 seperate people unite to form new family
becoming a parent and a family with children
3rd stage in family life cycle. adults move up a generation and become caregivers to a younger gen.
family with adol.
4th stage of family cycle. where adol. push for atomomy and own identity.
family at midlife
5th stage of family life cycle. lauching children linking gen. and adapting to mid changes
family in later life
6th family cycle final stage. involves retirement and grandparenting
romantic love
passionate love or eros sexual and infatuation components often predominates in the early period of a love relationship,
affectionate love
compationate love, individual desire to have the other person near with a caring affection for the other person
middle adulthood
the developmental period starting at 40 and ending at 60
chronic disorders
disorders that are characterized by a slow onset of a long duration. rare in early life, and common in older years.
type "A" behavior patterns
competitive, impatient, hostile, thought to be related to an incedent of heart disease.
type "B" behavior
calm and easygoing
hardiness
commitment not alienation, control not powerless, challenges not threats
climacteric
the midlife transition in which fertility declines
menapause
the complete cessation of a womens menstruation which usually occurs in the late 40s or early 50s
crystallized intelligence
according to horn, accumulated information and verbal skills that inc. with age
fluid intelligance
according to horn,ability to reason abstractly which declines from middle adulthood.
working memory
closely related to short term memory but places more emphasis on mental work. fit things together to make dessicions
leisure
pleasant times after work when indivs. are free to do things they enjoy
contemp life- events approach
how a life event influences the indivs. development. depends on mediating factors, adaption, and life stage, sociohistorical context.
sociol clock
the timetable according to which indivs. are expected to accompish life's tasks such as getting married, having children ,establishing themselves in a career
big five factors
emotional stability (neuroticism),extraversion, openness to experience,agreeableness, conscientiousness.
empty nest syndrome
a decrease in marital satisfaction after children leaves home, b/c from their children.
life span
the upper boundary of life, the maximum number of years an indiv. can live. life span 120 to 125
life expectancy
the number of years that will prob. be lived by the average person born in a particular year.
cellular clock theory
Hayflick's theory, theory that the maximum number of times that human cells can divide is about 75 to 80 as we age our cells have less capability to divide
free-radical theory
microbiological theory of aging by producing unstable O2 molecules known as FR. bounce around damacing cell structure.
mitochondrial theory
the theory that aging is caused by decay of MITO, tiny cell bodies that supply E for function, growth, and repair
hormonal stress theory
the theory that aging in the body's hormonal system can lower resilience to stress and increasethe likelihood of desease
cataracts
thinining of the lence of the eye that causes vision to become cloudy, opaque, and distorted
glaucoma
damage to the optic nerve b/c of pressure created by a build up of fluid in the eye
macular degeneration
a disease that involves the deterioration of the maculaof the retna that corresponds to the of the focal center of the visual field
arthritus
inlfamation of the joints that is accompanied by pain, stiffness, and movement problems common in older adults.
osteoporosis
a chronic condition that involves an extensice loss in bone tissue, the reason why oldies walk with a stoop, women are most vulnerable.
selective attention
focusing on specific aspects if experiences that are relevent and ignoring the irrevelent ones
divided attention
concetrating on more then one activity at the same time
sustained attention
the state of readiness to detect and respond to small changes occuring in random times in the environmnet
episode memory
the retention of info. about where and when of lifes happening
smantic memory
perons knoledge about the world including field of expertise, academic knolege, and everyday knoledge
explict memory
memory of facts and experiences that indiv know and state
implicit memory
memory w/o conscience memory skills and procedures doen automatically
source memory
the ablity to remember where one learned something
prospective memory
involves rembering to do something in the future
wisdom
expert knowledge about the practical aspect of life that allows excellent judgment about important matters
major depression
mood disorder in which indiv is deeply unhappy. demoralized, bored, very common
dementia
any neuralogical disorder involving the deterioration of mental functioning
alzheimers disease
progressive irreversible brain disorder characterized by a gradual deterioration of memory, reason, language, and physical function.
multi- infraction dementia
sporadic and progressive loss of intelectual funtioning caused by repeated temporary abstruction of blood flow in cerebral arteries
parkinson disease
a chronic progressive disease characterized by muscle tremors slowinf of movement and partail facial paralysis.
cognitive mechanics
"hardware" of the mind, invloves speed and accuracy, with sensore input, visual and motor memory,discrimintation, comparison, and categorization.
cognitive pragmatics
the culture based "software program" of the mind. cognitive invloving reading, writing lang comprehension, edu qualifications, prof. skills, self knoledge, and life skills
......which help us master or cope with life
integrity verses despair
eriksons 8th and final stage of development which indiv. experiece in late adulthood. involves reflection on the past and either viewing life as positive or negitive
differentation verses role preoccupation
one of the three developmental tasks of aging described by peck where older adults redefine their worth.
disengagment theory
the theory that to cope effectivly older adults should gradually withdraw from society
activity theory
the theory that the more active and involved older adults are the more likely they are to be satisfied with their lives.
body transcendence versus body preoccupation
a developmental task of aging described by peck in which older adults must cope with the declining physical well-being
ego transcendence versus ego preoccupation
a developmental task of aging described by peck oldies must come to feel at ease that they will die soon but they have contibuted to the future through their children with their vocation and ideas
socioemtional selectivity theory
the theory that older adults become more selective about their social networks. B/c they place a high value on emotional satisfaction older adults often spend more time with the same peeps that they know they like.
selective optimization with compensation theory
the theory that successfull aging is related to three main factors: selection, optimization, and comensation.
ageism
prejudice against peeps because of the their age usually older pepps
eldercare
physical and emotional caretaking for older members of the family, whether by giving day to day physical assistance or by being responsible for overseeing such care
generational inequality
the view that our aging society is being unfair to its younger members because older adults get higher advantages with more resources.