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### 29 Cards in this Set

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 Sampling Technique: nonprobability sampling a sampling procedure that in which one cannot specify the probability that any member of the population will be included in the sample. Sampling Technique: probablity sampling a sampling procedure in which one is able to specify the probability that any member of the population will be included in the sample. probablity the likelihood that a given event (amoung a specfic set of events) will occur. Sampling Technique of Probability sampling: simple random sampling a sampling procedure in which each member of the population has an EQUAL probability of being included in the sample. What are the sampling techs. of probability sampling? Simple random sampling. Stratified random sampling. Cluster sampling What are the sampling techs. of nonprobability sampling? Haphazard sampling. Purposive sampling. Quota sampling. Sampling Technique of Probability sampling: Stratified random sampling a sampling procedure in which the population is DIVIDED into strata(subgroups)and random samples are taken from each strata (subgroup). Sampling Technique of Probability sampling: Cluster sampling a method of sampling in which clusters of individuals are identified. Clusters are sampled and then all individals in each cluster are included in the sample. what is representative sample? a sample that is approximately the same as the population in every respect that the sample is choosen from. what is generalization? The extent to which the relationship among conceptual variables can be demonstrated in a wide variety of people and with a wide variety of manipulated or measure variables. What are some disadvantages of haphazard sampling? -difficult to replicate - run the danger of being biased samples (ex. people who go to the airportmay differ in systematic ways then people who dont) What are some disadvantages of stratified sampling? - the sampling is limited (it is hard to to find participants that match the target population in all demographics and other variables.) What is survey construction? designing questions to use in interviews an questionnaires What are the three steps of survey construction? 1) defining the research objectives 2)wording of the questions 3)deciding on a response type Name some research objectives -emotional states -attitudes and beliefs -demographic info -past or intended future behaviors -infrequent or private behaviors -individuals perceptions about behavior or relationships. Explain how survey questions should be worded. -Simplicity= questiosn should be brief and east to understand. - Ease = questions should fit rating scale used;scales should be well-defined and clear. - Questions should be in logical order/flow. Explain the two types of responses to questions of a survey. *Open-ened = requires more time to code and analyze; some responses may not be meaningful, but useful for how people naturally view the topic of interest. * Closed-ended: more structured approach; easier to code and analyze; responses same for everyone What are the types of close-ened responses 1) checklist - indicates presence or absence of behavior, attitude, or emotion. - Used on the spot or at later point in time. - useful for tracing children's developmental milestones or progress. Disadvantage: Does not measure gray areas. 2) Rating scales = indicates the degree to whihc behavior, attitude or emotions occurs. Name and describe the three types of rating scales. 1)Numerical scale: # on the scale have words assigned to them 2)Graphic scale: #'s represented as graph or picture and usually only extreme ends of the scale are labeled. 3)Forced-choice scales: several categories are avaiable and the rater chooses the best one. Describe what is a field interview. open-ended,unstructured, long,in-depth interview. It involves asking questions, listening,expressing interest, and recording what was said. Its like a friendly conversational exchange. What are some things that are involved with analyzing the data. -entering the data into the computer (if numerical) -checking and cleaning the data -conducting statistical analyses -raw data= need to summarize raw data. (ex. 46 respondents X 26 items of questions = ) What are some things that are involved with describing the data. One must understand the results by carefully describing the data collected. What is frequency distribution? (component of describing data) an arrangement of a set of scores from lowest to highest that indicates the number of times each score was obtained. (ex. this many people got this many a's and this many people got this many b's) Describe how you graph frequency distributions -directly observe how participants responded. -examine the shape of the distribution of scores. - identify outliers - compare the distributions to different groups Some ways freqency distributions can be graphed. 1) pie chart- useful for variables measured on a nominal or ordinal scale. 2)Histogram - uses bars to display freq. distr. for quanitiative variables. Values are continuous on this bar graph so they are drawn close together. For values on an interval or ratio scale Explain descripitive statistics -summary of scores, describing what you found. - allows researcher to make precise statements about the data. Two statistics are needed to describe the data: central tendency (how participants scored overall) and variability (how widely the distribution of scores is spread). Describe Central tendency (regarding describing the data) 1)mean (M)- average = summing up all scores and diving by the average. 2) median - the score at the center of the distribution 3) mode - the value that occurs most frequent in the distribution. Describe variability (regarding describing the data) -the amount of spread in the distribution of scores -standard deviation = s, SD in reports. -minimum and maximum scores (you just report numbers dont go into what they say) -Range Describe Inferential Statistics -Stats designed to determined whether results based on sample data are generalizable to a population. 1) to determine if the results may be due to chance. 2)Do the results reflect what would happed if the study was done again and again?