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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the sounds of a language that are the basis for word construction
the meanings associated with words
the grammer, or rules, of a language
the practical rules guiding the use of verbal and nonverbal communication in differing situations
phonemic awareness
knowledge of permissible and nonpermissible strings of sounds in one's native language
ex: "sp" vs. "sr"
making soft, repetitive vowel sounds
2 months
repeating consonant-vowel combinations
6-10 months
receptive language
children's understanding of language
expressive language
children's ability to produce language
individual words that convey as much meaning as whole sentences
fast mapping
associating the sound of a word with the concept the word stands for, sometimes in a single exposure
the use of words to refer to objects or things that are outside the bounds of the category named by the word
ex: doggie for all furry animals
the use of words to refer to fewer items than the word actually names
ex: shoe for specific one
telegraphic speech
early language in which only highly informative words are used and less informative (the, a, an) are neglected
language acquisition device (LAD)
Chompsky's idea that there is a part of the brain that allows children to understand the properties of all human languages
child-directed speech
a special version of language that caregivers use with their children
simple, repetitive, high-pitched, intonations
taking young children's simplified language and adding complexity and completeness to it
Learning Based Theories

learned thru observation

exposure to environment
Innate Theories
Noam Chomsky


linguistic universals

critical periods
Social Interaction Theories
active participation

exposure to rules, contexts, and patterns
endogenous smile
smile that is triggered by changes in nervous system activity and involves only the lower facial muscles
exogenous smile
smile that is triggered by external stimuli
2-3 weeks
social smile
smile that is triggered by social stimuli (such as mother's face)
6-8 weeks
social referencing
using caregivers as a source of information about how to respond in an uncertain emotional situation or condition
4 cries
1. basic- rhythmic pattern
2. anger- breathy sound
3. pain- sudden & loud
4. hunger- kicking with rhythm
self-conscious emotions
those emotions that involve injury to or enhancement of one's sense of self (such as pride and shame)
the predisposition to respond in certain enduring and characteristic ways to one's environment
Thomas & Chess 9 components of temperament
1. Rhythmicity- regularity of sleep, hunger, etc
2. Activity Level- intensity & frequency of motor movement
3. Approach-withdrawl- degree of acceptance or rejection
4. Presistence- time devoted to activity
5. Adaptability- adjustment to change
6. Quality of mood- expression of positive/negative emotions
7. Distractibilty- degree that environment can alter behavior
8. Threshold of responsiveness- intensity of stiumlation needed for response
9. Intensity of reaction- energy level of response
Rothbart 6 components of temperament
1. Fearful distress- tendency to withdrawl from new situations
2. Anger/frustration- degree of anger when needs are not met
3. Positive affect- amount of positive emotion shown
4. Activity level- level of gross motor activiy and energy
5. Attention span/persistence- ability to maintain focus & interest
6. Regularity- predicitability of behavior
goodness of fit
the match between a child's temperament and the demands of his or her environment
"Easy" temperament
infants who behave predictably and respond positively to new situations
"Difficult" temperament
infants who are irregular in schedules, slow to adapt to change, cry longer & louder, wary of new people/situations
"Slow-to-warm-up" temperament
infants who tend to be active but initially do not respond well to new situations/people
an enduring emotional tie characterized by a tendency to seek and maintain closeness to a specific figure, particularly under conditions of stress
4 Phases of attachment
1. Preattachment (first 8 weeks)
2. Attachment-in-making (2-6 months)
3. Clear-Cut (around 7 months)
4. Goal-corrected partnership (4 years)
stranger anxiety
a wary and fearful reaction to strangers
separation anxiety
a response in which negative protests accompany seperation from attachment figures
Strange Situation
a procedure used to assess infants attachment behavior under conditions of increasing stress due to separations from caregiver and strangers
secure attachment
pattern in which infants use their attachment figures as a secure base, obtaining comfort from their presence and becoming distressed by their absence
avoidant attachment
pattern characterized by conspicuous avoidance of contact or interaction with the caregiver
ambivalent attachment
pattern characterized by inconsistent behavior toward a caregiver
disorganized/disoriented attachment
pattern characterized by lack of a coherent strategy for handling separations from and reunions with caregiver
degree to which caregiver's and baby's behaviors occur together and are coordinated to produce a state of mutual enjoyment and engagement
physical abuse
abuse that causes death, serious physcial harm, or imminent risk of serious harm
sexual abuse
abuse that invovles engaging in sexual activity
failure to provide shelter, clothing, or protection for a child
psychological maltreatment
emtional abuse caused by threatening harm or conveying to an individual that she or he is worthless, unloved, or unwanted
primary prevention
efforts targeted at the population as a whole, to sensitize people to basic issues or to provide particular skills
secondary prevention
efforts targeted at a specific segment of the population thought to be at high risk for abuse
tertiary prevention
efforts directed at preventing or decreasing the reoccurance of an event that has already occured