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89 Cards in this Set

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Anatomy
the study of the structure and shape of the body and body parts and their relationships to one another
Physiology
the study of how the body and it's parts work or function
Atoms
tiny building blocks of matter, combine to form molecules (such as water, sugar, and protiens)
Cells
the smallest units of all living things
Tissues
consist of groups of similar cells that have a common function
Organ
a structure that is composed of two or more tissue types and performs a specific function of the body
Organ System
group of organes that cooperate to accomplish a commmon purpose
Organism
represents the highest level of structural organization, organismal level.
Organ Systems
Integumentary
Skeletal
Muscular
Nervous
Endocrine
Cardiovascular
Lymphatic
Respiratory
Digestive
Urinary
Reproductive
Levels of Structural Organization
Chemical Level
Cellular Level
Tissue Level
Organ Level
Organ System Level
Organismal Level
Integumentary System
Forms the external body covering; pretects deeper tissue from injury; synthesizes vitamin D; location of the cutaneous receptors; and sweat and oil glands
Skeletal System
Protects and supports body organs; provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement; blood cells are formed within bones; stores minerals
Muscular System
Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression; maintains posture; produces heat
Nervous System
Fast-acting control stystem of the body; responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands.
Endocrine System
Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells
Cardiovascular System
Blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc.; the heart pumps the blood
Lymphatic System
Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood; disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream; houses white blood cells involved in immunity
Respiratory System
Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide; the gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs
Digestive System
Breaks food down into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells; indigestible foodstuffsare eliminated as feces
Urinary System
Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body; regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance of the blood
Reproductive System
Overall function is production of offspring.
Necessary Life Functions
Movement
Responsiveness or Irritability
Digestion
Metabolism
Excretion
Reproduction
Growth
Survival Needs
Nutrients
Oxygen
Water
Stable Body Temperature
Atmospheric Pressure must be Appropriate
Homeostasis
Maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment

Must be maintained for normal body functioning and to sustain life
abdominal
anterior body trunk inferior to ribs
acromial
point of shoulder
antecubital
anterior surface of elbow
axillary
armpit
brachial
arm
buccal
cheek area
carpal
wrist
cervical
neck region
coxal
hip
crural
leg
digital
fingers, toes
femoral
thigh
fibular
lateral part of the leg
inguinal
area where thigh meets body trunk; groin
nasal
nose area
oral
mouth
orbital
eye area
patellar
anterior kneww
pelvic
area overlying the pelvis anteriorly
pubic
genital region
sternal
breastbone area
tarsal
ankle region
thoracic
chest
umbilical
navel
calcaneal
heel of foot
cephalic
head
deltoid
curve of shoulder formed by large deltoid muscle
femoral
thigh
gluteal
buttock
lumbar
area of back between ribs and hips
occipital
posterior surface of head
olecranal
posterior knee area
popliteal
posterior knee area
sacral
area between hips
scapular
shoulder blade region
sural
the posterior surface of lower leg; the calf
vertebral
area of spine
plantar region
sole of foot
Superior (Cranial or cephalad)
toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above
Inferior (Caudal)
Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below
Anterior (Ventral)
Toward or at the front of the body; in front of
Posterior (Dorsal)
Toward or at the backside of the body; behind
Medial
Toward or at the midline of the bodyl on the inner side of
Lateral
Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of
Intermediate
Between a more medial and a more lateral structure
Proximal
Close to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Distal
Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Superficial (External)
Toward or at the body surface
Deep (internal)
Away from the body surface; more internal
sagittal section
cut made along the lengthwise plane of the body, dividing the body into left and right parts
midsagittal section
cut made lengthwise down the plane of the body and left and right parts are equal in size
frontal section

Coronal section
cut made along a lengthwise plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
transverse section

cross section
cut made along a horizontal plane dividing the body or organ into superior and inferior parts
Dorsal body cavity
Two subdivisions:
Cranial Cavity
Spinal Cavity
Cranial Cavity
space inside the bony skull
spinal cavity
extends from cranial cavity nearly to the end of the vertebral column

(Spinal cord, which is a continuation of the brain, is protected by the vertebrae, which surround the spinal cavity)
Ventral Body Cavity
contains all structures within the chest and abdomen
Thoracic Cavity
separated from the rest of the ventral cavity by a dome shaped muscle (the diaphragm)
mediastinum
separates the lungs into right and left cavities in the thoracic cavity
abdominopelvic cavity
cavity inferior to diaphragm
contains the abdominal and the pelvic cavities (which do not actually have a physical divider)
abdominal cavity
contains the stomach, liver, intestines, and other organs
pelvic cavity
contains the reproductive organs, bladder, and rectum
1:Right Hypochondriac Region; 2:Right Lumbar Region;
3:Right Iliac (Inguinal) Region;
4:Epigastric Region; 5:Unbilical Region; 6:Hypogastric (Pubic) Region;
7:Left Hypochondriac Region; 8:Left Lumbar Region;
9:Left Iliac (Inguinal) Region.
Name 9 Regions
1:Right Hypochondriac Region; 2:Right Lumbar Region;
3:Right Iliac (Inguinal) Region;
4:Epigastric Region; 5:Unbilical Region; 6:Hypogastric (Pubic) Region;
7:Left Hypochondriac Region; 8:Left Lumbar Region;
9:Left Iliac (Inguinal) Region.
Name 9 Regions
Name Blank Body Cavities
Answer: