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34 Cards in this Set

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1. List 4 functions of bones
Movement, structure, support, protection.
2. Bones are categorized into 4 categories (according to their structure)
Flat-skull frontal bone, irregular-coxal, long-femur, short-phalanges.
3. What type of bone makes up long bones & where in the long bone do you find it?
Spongy bone, in the diaphysis.
5. Name 2 types of cartilage & an example of each
Hyaline-
Cartilage-
8. What is the function of mature Osteoblast (Osteocyte), & what happens in their absence?
They mineralize the osteiod matrix
9. What hormones control Bone Devlopment & Growth in:
a. Childhood- growth
b. Puberty- sex
11. What is Osteoporosis? (include whats wrong in the condition)
There is an imbalance between the osteoblast and osteoclast. More bone is being destroyed than developed.
13. What makes up the Axial & the Appendicular Skeleton?
Axial- skull, vertebrae, ribs, sternum.
Appendicular- limbs,
14. What is Sinusitis? (include its symptoms, & cause)
The sinuses are inflamed and mucus gets trapped inside causing sinus headache.
16. VC is divided into many sections, name all the sections & include how many vertebrae are in each section
Cervical-7, thoracic- 12, lumbar- 5, saccrum-5 fused, coccyx- 4 fused
17. What is the function of a Intervertebral Disk & what is it composed of?
To absorb shock and cushion the bones. Made of fibro-cartilage.
18. What is a Herniated Disk? (include its symptoms, cause & treatment)
A displacement of a vertebral disk.
19. Name 2 types of joints & an example of each
Fibrous- skull
Cartiligous- sternum
Synovial- Shoulder
23. What Filaments are found in a Sarcomere
Thick and thin.
24. Muscle contraction is dependent on the interaction between what filaments?
Thick and thin
29. Once one cycle of contraction ends (when a ATP binds to myosin & causes the thin & thick filaments to separate), what happens if:
a. Calcium is still present

b. No calcium is present
A. The cycle continues.
B. The muscle cell rest
30. How does the Action Potential generated on a muscle travel to the sarcoplasmic reticulum?
Through T Tubules
32. Muscle ells needs ATP for contraction, its able to stores ATP for 10 sec of work; after that from where do they get the ATP (3 different sources)?
Creatin Phosphate, glycogen, aerobic metabolism of glucose.
34. How many types of Skeletal muscle fibers are there, & what are they called?
2.
fast twitch and slow twitch.
36. Know the speed of contraction (not excat # but in order from fastest – slowest) of the 3 muscle types
Fastest, skeletal, cardiac, smooth.
38. Myasthenia Gravis (know whats the problem in the Disease & how it effects the normal process, its symptoms & its treatment)
a neuromuscular disorder characterized by variable weakness of voluntary muscles, which often improves with rest and worsens with activity. The condition is caused by an abnormal immune response
Tetanus (know whats the problem in the Disease & how it effects the normal process
a medical condition characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers.
40. Muscular Dystrophy ( know whats the problem in the Disease & how it effects the normal process & its symptoms
muscle weakness and loss of muscle tissue
41. Function of blood can be categorized into 3 categories, give 2 of these categories & an example of each
Transportation and protection.
42. Tell me 2 type of proteins found in plasma & for each of the protein tell one of its function
Albumins- create oncotic pressure.
Fibrinogens- blood coagulation.
Bilirubin:
Found in hemoglobin
45. What is the life span of RBCs, where & what kills them & what is released once RBCs are killed?
120. Liver and spleen.
. Name the 2 categories WBCs are categorized into & give me one WBC found in each category & a characteristic of that WBC
Granulocytes- Neutrophils – Most abundant & 1st to combat infection

Agranulocytes- Lymphocytes - contain b and t cells.
are the 4 stages that occur during blood clotting?
1. Vessel Injury
2. Vascular Spasm
3. Platelet plug formation
4. Clot Formation
50. What is the function of Prothrombin Activator & what is need for it to function?
Prothrombin Activator – released from platelets & converts Prothrombin to thrombin (requires Ca)
51. What is the function of Thrombin & Fibrin?
Thrombin – converts fibrinogen to fibrin

Fibrin – Wraps around the platelet plug &holds it in place
52. What happens after the initial fibrin clot is formed?
Platelets in clot contract → clot tightens & vessel ends are pulled together
54. We have 5 types / classes of Antibodies, give me their names / classes
igM, igE, igD, igG, igA.
GAMED
55. What is Erytheroblastis fetalis
Occurs when the mother and fetus have different blood types. THe mothers body attacks the fetus.