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59 Cards in this Set

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Liver
produces bile (water and electrolytes, cholesterol, bile salts, and lethin)
Mouth
-mechanical breakdown
-digestion begins
-enzyme in saliva that digests carbohydrates
Esophagus
-muscular tube
-smooth muscle
-esophagus connects to the stomach
-acid reflux
Peristalsis
push food down
Stomach
-food storage
-pH of 2 (acid)
-lined in mucus
-mucus protects
-digestion of proteins
-regulates rate of delivery
Small intestines
-villi
-folds in intestines
-absorption of proteins
-small molecules
-digestions of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids
-fat is harder to digest
Accessory organs aid the small intestines
-liver
-gall bladder
-pancreas
Pancreas
-produces digestive enzymes
-produces a neutralizer
Liver
-produces bile
-cover fat molecules (emulsification)
Gall Bladder
stores bile
What are the proteins?
amino acids-carbs
monosachrides-lipids
What is olestra?
-pretend fat molecules, 7 fatty acid tails
-it tastes like fat
-it can cause digestive problems
what are ulcers?
-breaking in lining of stomach or small intestines
-mucus gets bypassed
-bacterial infection
-cure with antibiotics
Pancreas and blood sugar
-glucagon(Up blood sugar)
-insulin(down blood sugar)
Normal blood sugar levels
-it rises after you eat it then it goes lower then the insulin kicks in
What is diabetes?
It's a disease in which blood sugars levels tend to be high.
Type I Diabetes
-not common, less than 10%
-juvinile, autoimmune disorder
-their immune system attacks the pancreas
-deficient insuline production
Type II-Diabetes
-late onset/adult diabetes
-cells become resistant to insuline
-blood sugar level gets out of wack
-cells are resistant to insuline
What is the outcome from diabetes?
-symptoms-peeing a lot, take blood sugar level, overweight, dizziness, blurred vision
long-term-heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, nervous system, circulation, amputation
What are some long term problems associated with low-carb diets
-hard on kidney/liver
-high cholesterol
What are the parts to the uninary system
2-kidney
-ureter(2)(ducts that close off)
-bladder
-urethra-leaves the body
Bladder
stores urine
Kidney
filters the blood, pumps out urethra poetin, keeps the pH constant, monitors blood volume, Vitamin D, salt balance
Problems with the urinary tract
-kidney stones-stones get stuck in vessiles
-UTI's
Urethra
-allows urine to leave the body
-it's much shorter in males which is why women get more
-baceterial infections(E. Coli)
How many chromosomes are there in humans?
-23 pairs
-23 from mom, 23 from dad
-1 pair of sex chromosomes
Male and Female chromosomes
xy-male-determines the sex
xx-female-has more of say if the kid will be bald or colorblind
Gonads
-testes
-ovary
Gametes
sperm
egg
Male Reproductive system
-scrotum
-testes (2)
-epididymis(2)
-Vas Deferens(2)
-Urethra
-penis
-glands (2pairs, 1 single)
Testes
-tube sytem where sperm and testosterone is produced
Epdidymis
lie on top of the testes, where sperm is stored
Vas deferens
-ducts that lead away from the testes
-where sperm leaves the body
-cuts off the sperm
Male cycle of testosterone
highest in the morning-lower in the afternoon
-response to challenge
-hourly fluctuation
Female reproduction structure
-ovaries(2)
-fallopian tube(2)
-uterus(1)
cervix
-vagina
-volva(2)
-clitoris
Ovary
Estrogen is produced and eggs develope
oviduct
-where the egg gets released(fallopian tube)
-where egg gets fertilized
Uterus
-where fertilized egg developes
-site of imlation
Uterus
-where a fertilized egg developes
-site of implantation
Vagina
birth canal
Egg formation
-eggs mature once a month
-ovluation is when eggs are released
Fate of the egg
-leaves the body or reabsorbed
-fertilization
Fertilization
-zygote-fertilized egg
-immplantation
Birth control
sterilization-tubes tied(fallopian or Vas)
hormonal-pill, Nuva ring, patch
Barrier-condom
Yeast infection
-not usually sexually transmitted
-Fungus
-normal flora leads to an infection
-yogurt helps
-itchiness adn redness can be a discharge
Trichomoniasis
-protozoan
-infects the vagina
-incubation-5 days to a few weeks
-frothy discharge, irritation
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease(PID)
-bacterial infection
-symptoms include fever, unsual vaginal discharge, painful intercourse or urination
-causes infertility
Chlamydia
-most common bacterial infection
-incubation: 1-3 weeks
-burning during urination, discharge PID
-most people have no symptoms
Gonorrhea
-bacterial
-Incubation-2-6 weeks
similar to Chlamydia and PID
-can get into throat, eyes, meniges
Syphilis
-bacterial
-sexually transmitted
-incubation 3 weeks
-3 stages
-cardiovascular and dementia can happen later
What are the 3 stages of Syphilis?
Primary-2-6 weeks
Secondary-several weeks later
Tertiary-months to years
Herpes
-Type I and II
-transmitted skin to skin
-Incubation-few days-2 weeks
-tingling and blisters, reoccuring outbreaks
-incurable
Papilloma Virus (HPV)
-over 30 viruses
-most common STI
-skin to skin contact
-incubation-1-3 months even years
-less than 1% have symptoms
-causes cervical cancer
-no tests for men
HIV
-Retrovirus
-transmission through sharing needles, sexual contact and blood transfusions
What does HIV target
CD4 or Helper T cells
AIDS- <200 mm
What is biodiversity
Diversity within and between all living things on this planet
Why is biodiversity important?
-human value-clothes, food, oxygen...
-Stewardship-given a gift of the world
-spiritual and religios value
-pyschological value
What threatens biodiversity?
meteors, temperature changes, humans
What are some problems humans pose?
-introduction of species
-overexploitation-over-hunting and fishing
pollution
-habitat degredation
-climate change causes changes to animals(ex. McDonalds)