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149 Cards in this Set

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Homeostasis
A bodies ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world conditions change continuously
HOMEOSTASIS CONTROL MECHANISMS
Variable
factor/event being regulated
HOMEOSTASIS CONTROL MECHANISMS
Receptor
Some type of sensor that monitors the environment and reponds to changes by sending information to the second component
HOMEOSTASIS CONTROL MECHANISMS
Control centre
Determines the set point then determines an apppropriate course of action
HOMEOSTASIS CONTROL MECHANISMS
Effector
Provides the measn for the control centres response
Negative feedback
Shuts of the original stimulus or reduces its intensity
Positive feedback
Causes the variable to deviate further and further from its original range
Supine
Body lying face upwards
Prone
Body lying face down
Superior
Above
Inferior
Below
Anterior
Front of the body
Posterior
Back of the body
Medial
Middle of the body
Lateral
Away from the middle of the body
Proximal
Closer to the origin of the body part
Distal
Further from the origin of the body part
Superficial
Toward the body surface
Deep
Away from the body surface
External
Further from the centre of an organ or cavity regardless of direction
Internal
closer to the centre of an organ or cavity regardless of direction
Bilateral
Paired structures having right and left members
Unilateral
Those occuring on only one side
Ipsilateral
Refers to something occurring on the same side of the body to another structure
Contralateral
Occurring on the opposite side of the body relative to another structure
Axial part of the body
Main axis of the body - head/neck/trunk
Appendicular part
Consists of the appendages and limbs
Sagittal plane
vertical plane that divides the body into left and right sections
Coronal/Frontal plane
Divides the body into front and back sections
Transverse plane
Cross section
Oblique Sections
Cuts made between the horizontal and vertical planes
Longitudinal sections
Run lengthwise/parallel to the long axis
Dorsal Body Cavity
Posterior - cranial cavity and spinal cavity
Ventral Body Cavity
Anterior - houses internal organs
Flexion
decreasing the angle between bones of parts of the body (bending)
Dorsiflexion
Flexion at the ankle joint
Plantarflexion
Standing on your toes
Extension
Increasingthe angle between the bones or parts of the body
Abduction
Moving away from the median plane in the frontal plane
Adduction
Moving toward the median plane in the frontal plane
Circumduction
Circular movement which is a combination of flexion, extension, adduction and abduction
Rotation
Turning or revolving a part of the body around its longitudinal axis
Pronation
Rotational movement of the forearm and hand that swings the radius medially around its longitudinal axis so that the palm of the hand faces posteriorly
Supination
Rotational movement of the forearm and hand that swings the radius medially around its longitudinal axis so that the palm of the hand faces anteriorly
Opposition
The pad of the thumb is brought to another digit pad
Reposition
Bringing the thumb back from another digit pad
Protusion
Forward movement
Retrusion
Movement backwards
Elevation
Raise
Depression
Lower
Eversion
Moves the sole of the foot away from the median plane - turning it laterally
Inversion
Moves the sole towards the median plane
Australopithicus Africanus period and where they were found
3-2.2 million years ago; east and south Africa
Homo erectus time period and where they were found
2-0.4 million years ago; Africa, Asia, Europe
Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis time period and where they were found
200,000 - 300,000 years ago; Europe and Asia
Definition of Evolution
Inherit characteristics through genetic variation
Variation is acted upon by natural selection
Survival of the fittest
Out of Africa Model
We arose in Africa and after we had fully developed migrated north and wiped out other populations
Multi regional Evolution
Local populations in Europe, Asia and Africa developed separately and similarities are due to interbreeding over time
What makes humans human?
Bipedalism
Live in permanent bisexual groups
Large brains, complex learning
Culture is the fundamental adaptive strategy
Obtain food through some division of labour (food is then shared)
Females are sexually active throughout the year
Features of bipedalism
Foramen Magnum further forward
Spine with distinct curves
Pelvis in form of a basin
Lower limbs are elongated - feet are placed directly below pelvis
Femur angled inward
Big toe enlarged
Longitudinal arch in foot
Order of evolution
Australopithicus aferensis
Australopithicus africanus
Homo erectus
Homo sapiens neanderthalensis
Homo sapiens sapiens
In reponse to a disease or traumatic force, bone can be:
Removed
Be deposited
BOTH
Disease in hunter gatherer societies
Parasitic, zoontic
Good points about hunter gatherer societies
Nomadic - left diseases behind
Well balanced diet
Disease in agricultural societies
Epidemics, zoonoses, irragation, sanitation, nutritional, dental
Pelvis sexual dimorphism
Sacrum
Pubic bone shape
Subpubic angle
Great Schiatic notch
Bone thickness
Ventral arc
Subpubic cavity
Ischiopubic ramus
Skull sexual dimorphism
Mastoid process
External occipital protuberance
Supraorbital ridge
Glabella
Supraorbital margin
Chin
Orbits
Three main sites where the fusion of primary ossification occurs
pelvis, vertebare, occiput
Skeletal ageing areas
Sternal clavicle
Sacrum
Sphenooccipital synchrondrosis
Pubic symphysis
Muscles of the pelvic floor
Levator ani - pubococcygeous, illiococcygeous

Coccygeous
Anterior boundaries of the pelvis
pubic bones
Lateral boundaries of the pelvis
Hip bones, obturator internus muscles
Posterior boundaries of the pelvis
Sacrum, coccyx, piriformis muscles
Floor boundaries of the pelvis
Pelvic diaphragm muscles
Male reproductive ducts
Epididymis, vas deferens, urethra
Male reproductive accessory glands
Bulbourethral gland, seminal vesicles, prostate
Erectile tissue of the penis
Corpus Spongiosum, corpora cavernosa
Muscle which stops blood from leaving the penis during an erection
Bulbospongiosus muscle
Muscle which each "crus" in the penis is surrounded by and anchors to the pubic arch of the bony penis
Ischiocavernosus muscle
Muscle which wraps around all blood vessels in the testes and lifts up for thermoregulation
Cremaster muscle and dartos muscle
Veins surrounding the testicular artery which are involved in a heat exchange mechanism for regulation
Pampiniform plexus
Scrotum
Made of superficial fascia, dartos muscle and skin
Where sperm is produced
In the seminiferous tubules
The seminiferous tubules of each lobule converge to form a straight tubule that conveys sperm into the rete testes
Tubulus rectus
What are the rete testes
A tubular network on the posterior side of the testes
Sperm leaves the rete testes through the...
Efferent ductules
Leydig (interstitial cells)
Lie in the soft connective tissue surrounding the seminiferous tubules. Produce and secrete into the surrounding tissue testosterone.
Testicular arteries
Branch from the abdominal aorta - supply the testes; inferior to the renal arteries
Testicular veins
Drain the testes; arise from the pampiniform plexus
Seminal vesicles
Secretes an alkaline fluid mixed with sperm
Reduces acidity and gives the sperm energy
Prostate gland
Secretes highly acidic fluid which helps acivate sperm and keep it viable
Bulbourethral gland
Neutralises traces of urine in urethra by secreting an alkaline fluid
Testicular temperature is controlled by...
Pampiniform plexus
Scrotum
Dartos and cremaster muscles
Position of testes
Testes are made of..
Seminiferous tubules and interstitial cells
Seminiferous tubules divided by...
lined by...
divided in lobules by connective tissue called septa
Lined by stratified epithelia
Septa contains..
interstitial cells
Stratified epithelia in the seminiferous tubules consists of
developing sperm and suppoting cells (sustentacular cells)
Tubulus rectus is lined by
simple cuboidal or simple columnar
Epididymis
Where sperm undergo the maturation process
Vas deferens joins with the duct of the seminal vesicles to form..
the ejaculatory duct
Three sections of the urethra
Prostatic
Membranous
Spongy (penile)
Ligaments supporting the uterus and ovaries
Broad ligament
Suspensary ligament
Uterosacral ligament
Round ligament
Path of the sperm
seminiferous tubules
tubulus rectus
rete testes
efferent ductules
epididymis
vas deferens
ejeculatory duct
urethra
Definition of ovulation
Oocyte is release from the ovary into the peritoneal cavity
Broad ligament consists of
Mesosalpinx
Mesovarium
Mesometrium

It is the main supportive tissue
The ovarian ligament function
Suspends the ovary to the uterus
What is the name if the "structure" that extends over the ovary to ensure collection of the oocyte into the fallopian tube?
Fimbriae
Suspensary ligamen function
Connects the ovary to the abdominal wall
Names of the main uterine and ovarian arteries
Ovarian artey
inferior mesenteric artery
Internal iliac artery
Uterine artery
Follicle cells
Surround oocyte - if one layer
Granulosa cells
Surround oocyte - if multiple layers
Primordial follicle
One layer of squamous-like epithelial cells surround the oocyte
Primary follicle
Two or more layers of cuboidal or columnar type granulosa cells enclosing the oocyte
Secondary follicle
Fluid filled spaces appear between the granulosa cells and then combine to form an antrum
Antrum
Fluid filled cavity in a follicle
Vesicle (Graafian) follicle
Follicle bulges from the surface of the ovary; oocyte sits on a stalk of granulosa cells at one side of the antrum
Corpus luteum
After ovulation the follicle is transformed into a glandular structure which eventually degenerates
Corpus albicans
Degenarating corpus luteum
Muscular peristalsis
Toothpaste muscle movement
Anteverted uterus
flexes anteriorly
Retroverted
Uterus is frequently turned backward in older women
Parts of the uterine wall
Perimetrium - outermost serous layer
Myometrium - middle layer (smooth muscle)
Endometrium - mucosal lining of the uterine cavity; simple columnar epithelium - underlain by lamina propria
Lamina propria
Connective tissue which underlies mucosal membrane epithelia
Mesometrium
Ligament which supports the uterus inferiorly
Uterosacral ligament
Secure the uterus to the anterior body wall
Haploid
Gamete cells with only one chromosome (n)
Diploid
Cells with two chromosomes (2n)
Gonadal ridge
Embryotic structure which develops into gonads.
Development of gonadal ridge is determined by:
Testosteron and Mulllerian inhibitor hormone
Embryotic ducts which develop into either male or female reproductive ducts
Mesonephric (wolffian) duct
Paramesonephric (Mullerian) duct
Embryotic structure which develops into the kidney
Metanephros
Sex is determined by
The presence or absence of a Y chromosome
Y chromosome function in embryo
Allows production of testosterone which affects the production of the wolfian duct

Lack of Y chromosome allows female features to form as there is no signal dictating the development of the gonadal ridge into testes

therefore female develops no testosterone and ducts default into female system
Three steps of spermatogenesis
Mitosis, Meiosis, Spermeogenesis
Spermeogenesis
the maturation of sperm
Follicle development steps
Primordial, primary, graafian
Follicle stimulating hormone
Stimulated by GnRH - stimulates ovarian follicle maturation and estrogen production and testosteron and inhibin in males
Luteinizing hormone
Stimulated by GnRH - triggers ovulation and stimulates ovarian production of estrogen and progesteron
Promotes testosterone production in males
Peptide hormones mechanism
regulatory molecules calld G proteins and intracellular second messengers (mediate target cells reponse to the hormone)

Lipid insoluble - cannot cross the membrane
Steroid hormones
Synthesised from cholesterol
Only gonadal
Mechanism involves direct gene stimulation
Lipid soluble
Levator ani
Consists of iliococcygeous and pubococcygeous

Maintains position of the pelvic viscera

Resists downward thrusts

Lifts anal canal during defacation
Coccygeous
Supports pelvic viscera

suports coccyx and pulls it forward after it has been reflected posteriorly by defacation and childbirth
Deep transverse perineus
Supports pelvic organs
Sphincter urethra
Constricts urethra

Helps support pelvic organs
Ischiocavernosus
Maintains erection of penis and clitoris
Bulbospongiosus
Empties male urethra

Helps maintain erection of penis and clitoris
What is anisogamy/heterogamy?
the union of two types of sex cells that are dissimilar in sizem structure and function
Azoospermia
no sperm
Oligospermia
less than 20 million sperm per mL of ejaculate