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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
exchange of gases between an organism and its environment;
O2 taken up, CO2 excreted
active movement of air or water over respiratory surface
missing link between sea and land animals
Tiktaalik rosae
why gas exchange in air is better than water
no need to maintain moisture
air contains higher concentration of molecular O2
O2 diffuses more rapidly through air than water
less energy needed to move air over gas exchange surface
external/internal respiration
external: exchange of gases across lung tissue
internal: moving O2 out of blood and into tissue cells & moving CO2 from tissues into blood
respiratory system
lungs and airways, located in pleural cavity, covered with pleural membrane
path of air
nostrils, nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
bony projections in the nose covered with epithelial tissue which tumble the air, catching dust and bacteria in mucus
3 sections of pharynx
nasopharynx (above soft palate)
oropharynx (from end of soft palate to epiglottis)
larygnopharynx (from epiglottis to esophageal opening)
only air, continuous with nasal cavity, lined with pseudostratified columnar, houses adenoids (nonspecific immune defense), pharyngotympanic tube connects to the middle ear
food and air, tonsils located here, lined with stratified squamous
food and air, stratified squamous epithelium
adam's apple, contains vocal cords, formed by cartilage, hole is glottis covered by epiglottis
transports air to lungs, formed by cartilage rings, lined with mucus secreting ciliated pseudostratified epithelial, thymus and thyroid glands along surface
trachea branches into cartilage-containing bronchi within lung, which branches into bronchioles (no cartilage), which branch into alveoli
lined with simple squamous epithelial (gas exchange), surrounded by network of capillaries
not respiration
pressure inversely proportional to volume
volumes of concern
thoracic cavity, pleural space, within lung
pressures of concern
atmospheric (760 mm Hg), thoracic cavity, within the lung
period when air flows into lungs
intercostal muscles contract, diaphragm descends, rib cage rises
TC V increases and lungs stretch
pressure drops
higher pressure outside -> air moves into lungs
active process because muscles are contracted
period when gases exit the lungs
muscles relax, diaphragm rises, rib cage descends
TC & pulmonary cavity V decreases
pressure in lungs rises above atmospheric
air (gases) flow out of lungs
passive process
different during exercise
air pollutants
substances in atmosphere with harmful effects
major sources: power plants, industrial processes, transportation (fossil fuels)
inhaling polluted air results in bronchial constriction, damage to ciliated cells, coughing, increased mucus secretion
chronic effects of air pollution
very common in urban areas
bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, asthma, cancer
chronic CO reduces capacity of blood to carry O2 and can cause heart disease
carcinogenic effects of air pollution
soot, diesel exhaust, heavy-metal and organic pollutants in air
even trace amounts
most susceptible to air pollution
children, elderly, asthmatics, people with chronic pulmonary/heart disease
tidal volume
amount of air moving in and out of lungs while breathing normally (~.5L)
inspiratory reserve volume
inspiring > tidally (~3.1L)
expiratory reserve volume
exhaling > tidally (~1.2L)
vital capacity
amount of air that can be exchanged in one breath (app 4.8L)
residual volume
air remaining in alveoli/tubes after exhaling everything (app. 1.2L)
total lung capacity
VC + RV (app 6L)
respiratory pigment found in blood
respiratory pigment found in muscle
hemoglobin and O2 transport
O2 transported as oxyhemoglobin (HbO2): oxygen bound to hemoglobin
oxygen-carrying capacity
max amoutn of O2 that can be transported by hemoglobin
oxygen content
actual amount of O2 bound to hemoglobin
percent oxygen saturation
ratio of O2 content to capacity
Bohr effect
chemical bond between blood and hemoglobin is weak
dissociates more readily as pH decreases & CO2 increases
CO2 transport
7-10% of CO2 in plasma - slow rxn
CO2 in RBC - fast rxn - carbonic anhydrase
CO2 combines with water and forms carbonic acid (H2CO3)
hydrogen ion to hemoglobin, forms bicarbonate (HCO3-)
Cl ion shifts into cell
(all happens in reverse when CO2 leaves blood and diffuses into lungs)
respiratory acidosis
decrease in pH in blood, no dissociation, O2 isn't going to cells