Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
organs which convert chemically stored energy into mechanical energy
muscle glycogen is broken down into...
muscle contraction functions
cell fibers shorten in response to stimulation, through action of myofilaments, contractions cause movement, maintain posture. produce heat, aid in vascular flow
muscle characteristics
contractile, irritable, extensible, elastic
muscle irritability
muscles receive and respond to action potentials (nerve impulses)
muscle extensibility
muscles are able to be stretched, one stretches as another contracts, antagonistic
muscle elasticity
muscles return to original shape after contraction or extension
muscle atrophy
muscles degenerate if nerve supply is lost, if blood supply is inadequate, or from disuse
muscle hypertrophy
muscle increase in size in reponse to increased use (with no change in fiber number)
muscle building cells that remain in skeletal muscle as satllite cells to repair damaged muscle tissues
types of muscle tissue
cardiac (heart), skeletal, smooth (visceral)
skeletal muscle
most abundant, most obvious, flesh or meat that attaches to bones, 40% of total body weight, voluntary, contractions are quick and forceful, striated
appearence of skeletal muscle, visible under microscope, due to arrangement of thick and thin myofilaments within sarcomeres
gaster, meat, mainly skeletal muscle tissues
aponeuroses, dense regular connective tissues, attach to origins (proximal bone) and insertion(distal bone), some tendons have sheaths, bursae
sacs of synovial fluid between tendon-bone, muscles-bone, ligaments-bone, skin-bone
inflammation of tendons
inflammation of bursae
inflammation of tendons, tendon sheath and synovial membranes surrounding certain joints such as wrists shoulders elbows and feet
group of fascicles/fasciculi wrapped in epimysium
bundle of muscle cells(fibers) wrapped in periepimysium
fiber, long straight and wrapped in endomysium, red with more capillaries, mitochondria, and myoglobin, white with low myoglobin
muscle innervation
sarcolemma is almost touched by axon terminal/motor end plate, skeletal muscle must receive stimulus before contracting, acetycholinedumped into synaptic cleft initiates muscle action potential
plasma membrane with T-tubules (transverse tubules)
muslce cell cytoplasm, found in small amounts
muscle cells possess numerous peripherally located nuclei
muscles cells possess many of these organelles whcih produce ATP
sarcoplasmic reticulum
smooth tube-like network covering myofibrils, forms a triad with t-tubules and two terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum
80% of cell volume is occupied by this proteinaceous material, longitudinally oriented, made up of many short myofilaments
|| to each other in overlapping arrays, hence striations
thick myofilaments
found in light and heavy meromysin
thin myofilaments
found in actin, tropomysin, and troponin
functonal contractile unit of skeletal muscle contraction, anatomical unit of a myofibril, delineated by Z-discs (transverse proteinaceous structures)
I band
less dense, light area of thin myofilaments isotropic)
dense, dark area of thick myofilaments (anisotropic)
line of threadlike protein molecules
H-zone or H-band
areas of only thick myofilaments
outer layer of heart wall, a serous membrane of epithelium and connective tissue, aka visceral layer of serous pericardium
middle layer of cardiac muscle
inner smooth layer of endothelium and smoothe connective tissue and smooth muscle, in heart
cardiac contraction
inherent, involuntary, vigorous, and autorhythmic
cardiac muscle features
striated under microscope due to myofilaments and myofibrils, contains a fibrous skeleton, lacks satellite cells---damaged tissue cannot regenerate
cardiac muscle cell charactersitcs
irregularly shaped or branched, one or two centrally located nuclei, sarcolemma, myofibrils, mitochondria, CT, blood vessels, nerves in between cells, networks of cells, no nerve stimulus required for contraction
cardiac sarcolemma
thin, poorly defined, and connected by intercalated discs with gap junctions desmosomes and myofbrils that are well ancored to sarcolemmal membranes
cardiac myofibrils
less distinct than in skeletal muscle, may be branched
cardiac mitichondria
ATP producers, more numorus and larger than in skeletal muscle
major networks of myocardial cells
walls and septum of stria, walls and septum of ventricles
functional syncytium
major myocardial cell networks are known as this, cosidered multi nucleated masses, one fiber stimultated, all contract
cardiac contraction
cardiac contraction not goverend by nerve impulses, generated by SA node (sinoatrial) located in upper wall of right atrium, innervation by autnomic nervous system adjusts rate
smooth muscle
involuntary, innervated by ANS, small thick fibers, fusiform, staggered fiber arrangement, single oval central located nucleus, intermediate filaments attached to dense bodies, nonstriated, much actin less myosin, fibers can divide
small fibers, thick in middle and taper at each end
kinds of smooth muscle
visceral or single unit, and mutliunit smooth
single unit smooth
wraparound sheets that form walls of hollow viscera, stomach intestines sphincters, uterus urinary bladder, sheets play role in caliber of lumen, one fiber stiulated by a neuron, adjacent fibers respond as impulse reaches them they contract in sequence in a wave
multiunit smooth
walls of alrge blood vessels, arrector pili, intrinsic eye, each fiber has its own motor nerve end plate and only that fiber contractswith stimulation
stress relaxation
fibers strech without developing tension, exibit plasticity