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125 Cards in this Set

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Describe the upward rotation of the scapula/ shoulder.
· When the arm is raised overhead, the scapula rotates upward
· The inferior angle of the scapula thus moves laterally and the lateral angle is elevated
· Contraction of the upper fibers of the Trapezius elevates the clavicle and the acromial end of the scapular spine.
· Simultaneously, the pull of the Serratus anterior on the vertebral border causes upward rotation of the inferior angle of the scapula.
· Serratus anterior and Trapezius work together to bring about upward rotation even though the Trapezius retracts the scapula and can be antagonistic to the Serratus anterior.
· Serratus anterior is the most important. When the Serratus anterior is paralyzed, the Trapezius alone cannot produce adequate upward rotation.
Describe the downward rotation of the scapula/ shoulder.
· Example: When padding a canoe.
· Action is produced by the Rhomboids (major & minor) and Pectoralis minor.
· Levator scapulae also assists by lifting the medial border of the scapula during the initial phase of this movement.
Name the Origin and insertion of the Serratus anterior, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Upper 8 or 9 Ribs

Insertion: Anterior vertebral border of scapula

Action: Pulls scapula forward and downward
Name the Origin and insertion of the Pectoralis minor, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Sternal end of 3rd, 4th, and 5th Ribs

Insertion: Coracoid process of scapula

Action: Pulls scapula forward and downward
Name the Origin and insertion of the Subclavius, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: First rib

Insertion: Subclavian groove of clavicle

Action: Draws clavicle downward
Name the Origin and insertion of the Trapezius, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Occipital bone and spines of C7 and all thoracic vertebrae

Insertion:
1. Clavicle
2. Spine of scapula
3. Acromium

Action:
1. Elevates, depresses, and adducts scapula;
2. Hyperextends neck;
3. Braces shoulder
Name the Origin and insertion of the Levator scapulae, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: C1 to C4

Insertion: Medial border of scapula

Action: Elevates scapula
Name the Origin and insertion of the Rhomboideus major, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Spines of T2 to T5

Insertion: Medial border of scapula

Action: Elevates and adducts scapula
Name the Origin and insertion of the Rhomboideus minor, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: C7 and T1

Insertion: Medial border of scapula

Action: Elevates and adducts scapula
Name the Origin and insertion of the Pectoralis Major, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin:
1. Clavicle
2. Sternum
3. Costal cartilages of 2nd to 6th Ribs
4. Rectus sheath

Insertion: Crest of greater tubercle of humerus

Action: Flexes, adducts, and medially rotates shoulder joint
Name the Origin and insertion of the Latissimus Dorsi, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin:
1. Spines of sacral, lumbar and thoracic vertebrae
2. Iliac crest and lover 4 ribs

Insertion: Intubercular groove of humerus

Action: Extends, adducts, and medially rotates shoulder joint
Name the Origin and insertion of the Deltoid, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin:
1. Clavicle
2. Acromium
3. Spine if scapula

Insertion: Deltoid tuberosity of humerus

Action: Abducts, extends or flexes shoulder joint
Name the Origin and insertion of the Supraspinatus, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Supraspinous fossa

Insertion: Greater tubercle of humerus

Action: Abducts and laterally rotates shoulder joint
Name the Origin and insertion of the Infraspinatus, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Infraspinous fossa

Insertion: Greater tubercle of humerus

Action: Rotates shoulder joint laterally
Name the Origin and insertion of the Teres major, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Inferior angle and lateral border of scapula

Insertion: Crest of lesser tubercle of humerus

Action: Extends shoulder joint, or adducts and rotates shoulder joint medially
Name the Origin and insertion of the Teres minor, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Axillary border of scapula

Insertion: Greater tubercle and groove of humerus

Action: Rotates shoulder joint laterally
Name the Origin and insertion of the Subscapularis, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Subscapular fossa

Insertion: Lesser tubercle of humerus

Action: Rotates shoulder joint medially
Name the Origin and insertion of the Coracobrachialis, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Coracoid process of scapula

Insertion: Body of humerus

Action: Flexes and adducts shoulder joint
Name the Origin and insertion of the Quadratus lumborum, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Iliac crest and lower three lumbar vertebrae

Insertion: 12th rib and upper 4 lumbar vertebrae

Action: Extends lumbar region; laterally flexes vertebral column
Name the three groups of muscles of the Erector spinae and their subdivisions if applicable.
1. Iliocostalis:
a. Iliocostalis lumborum
b. Iliocostalis thoracis
c. Iliocostalis Cervicis
2. Longissimus:
a. Longissimus thoracis
b. Longissimus cersicis
c. Longissimus carpitis
3. Spinalis thoracis
Name the Origin and insertion of the Iliocostalis lumborum, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Crest of ilium

Insertion: Lower 6 ribs

Action: Extends lumbar region
Name the Origin and insertion of the Iliocostalis thoracis, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Lower 6 ribs

Insertion: Upper 6 ribs

Action: Extends thoracic region
Name the Origin and insertion of the Iliocostalis cervicis, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Angles of 3rd to 6th ribs

Insertion: Transverse processes of C4 to C6

Action: Extends cervical region
Name the Origin and insertion of the Longissimus thoracis, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Transverse process of lumbar vertebrae

Insertion:
1. Transverse process of all the thoracic vertebrae
2. Lower 9 ribs

Action: Extends thoracic region
Name the Origin and insertion of the Longissimus cervicis, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Transverse process of upper 4 or 5 Thoracic vertebrae

Insertion: Transverse process of C2 to C6

Action: Extends and laterally flexes cervical region
Name the Origin and insertion of the Longissimus capitus, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin:
1. Transverse processes of T1 to T5
2. Articular processes of C5 to C7

Insertion:
1. Posterior margin of cranium
2. Mastoid process of Temporal bone

Action: Extends head; acting separately, extends head toward that side.
Name the Origin and insertion of the Spinalis thoracis, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Spinous process of upper lumbar and lower thoracic vertebrae

Insertion: Spinous process of upper thoracic vertebrae

Action: Extends vertebral column
Name the Origin and insertion of the Semispinalis thoracis, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Transverse process of T6 – T10

Insertion: Spinous process of C6 – T4

Action: Extends vertebral column
Name the Origin and insertion of the Semispinalis cervicis, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Name the Origin and insertion of the Semispinalis cervicis, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Name the Origin and insertion of the Semispinalis capitis, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Transverse process of C7 – T7

Insertion: Nuchal line of occipital bone

Action: Extends head
Name the Origin and insertion of the Biceps brachii, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin:
1. Coracoid process
2. Tuberosity above glenoid cavity of scapula

Insertion: Radial tuberosity

Action:
1. Flexes elbow joint
2. Supinates forearm and hand at radioulnar joint
Name the Origin and insertion of the Brachialis, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Anterior body of humerus

Insertion: Coronoid process of ulna

Action: Flexes elbow joint
Name the Origin and insertion of the Brachioradialis, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus

Insertion: Proximal to styloid process of radius

Action: Flexes elbow joint
Origin: Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus

Insertion: Proximal to styloid process of radius

Action: Flexes elbow joint
Origin:
1. Tuberosity below glenoid cavity
2. Lateral and medial surfaces of humerus

Insertion: Olecranon of ulna

Action: Extends elbow joint
Name the Origin and insertion of the Anconeus, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus

Insertion: Olecranon of ulna

Action: Extends elbow joint
Describe the musculotendinous cuff of the shoulder joint.
Four muscles surround the joint closely and help to maintain firm contact between the scapula and the humerus. The 4 muscles:
1. Subscapularis
2. Supraspinatus
3. Infraspinatus
4. Teres minor
The tendons of the 4 muscles fuse with the capsule of the shoulder joint and blend with each other to form a musculotendinous cuff called the rotator cuff (since most of these muscles are rotators).
What two important parts of the shoulder help to stabilize & strengthen the shoulder joint and to hold the head of the humerus in the glenoid fossa?
1. The rotator cuff

2. The tendon of the long head of the Biceps – this tendon is intracapsular and provides a strong support superior to the shoulder joint
1. The rotator cuff

2. The tendon of the long head of the Biceps – this tendon is intracapsular and provides a strong support superior to the shoulder joint
The deltoid.

The other muscles act mainly in the first 90 degrees of flexion; their actions decline of cease beyond 90 degrees.
What muscle is capable of extending the arm far enough to allow the hand to be placed in the hip pocket?
The Deltoid.
Of the muscles involved in shoulder abduction, which is the most powerful, and to what degree can it abduct the arm?
· The two muscles that provide abduction are the Supraspinatus and Deltoid.
· The Deltoid is the most powerful, and it can abduct the arm to a horizontal position (100-120 degrees)
· Abduction is possible without the Deltoid, but the strength and power of endurance is reduced.
Other than the Supraspinatus and Deltoid, what muscles does the abduction of the shoulder indirectly depend on and why?
The efficiency of the abductors depends largely upon the synergistic action of the Serratus anterior and the Trapezius (upward rotators of the scapula).

Without the action of the two latter muscles the contraction of the Deltoid and the Supraspinatus would cause the scapula to rotate downward.
Of the medial rotators of the arm, which one is the most powerful medial rotator?
Subscapularis
If both the both the Biceps and the Brachialis of the arm are paralyzed, is forearm flexion possible? Explain.
Yes. Flexion is still possible because of the accessory flexors:
1. Brachioradialis
2. Pronator teres
Name the Origin and insertion of the Supinator, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin:
1. Lateral epicondyle of the humerus
2. Crest of ulna

Insertion: Lateral surface of radius

Action: Supinates forearm and hand
Name the Origin and insertion of the Pronator teres, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus

Insertion: Lateral surface of radius

Action: Pronates forearm and hand
Name the Origin and insertion of the Pronator quadratus, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Distal fourth of ulna

Insertion: Distal fourth of radius

Action: Pronates forearm and hand
Name the Origin and insertion of the flexor carpi radialis, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Medial condyle of humerus

Insertion: Base of second and third metacarpal bones

Action: Flexes and abducts hand at wrist
Name the Origin and insertion of the Palmaris longus, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus

Insertion: Palmar aponeurosis

Action: Flexes wrist
Name the Origin and insertion of the Flexor carpi ulnaris, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Medial epicondyle and olecranon

Insertion: Carpal and metacarpal bones

Action: Flexes and adducts wrist
Name the Origin and insertion of the Superficial digital flexor, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin:
1. Medial epicondyle
2. Coronoid process
3. Anterior border of radius

Insertion: Middle phalanges of digits II - V

Action: Flexes wrist and digit at metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints
Name the Origin and insertion of the deep digital flexor, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Proximal two-thirds of ulna and interosseous ligament

Insertion: Digital phalanges of digits III - V

Action: Flexes wrist and digit at metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints
Name the Origin and insertion of the Flexor pollicis longus, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin:
1. Body of radius
2. Interosseous ligament
3. Coronoid process of ulna

Insertion: Distal phalanx of thumb

Action: Flexes joints of thumb
Name the Origin and insertion of the Extensor carpi radialis longus, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Lateral supracondylar ridge if humerus

Insertion: Second metacarpal bone

Action: Extends and abducts wrist
Name the Origin and insertion of the Extensor carpi radialis brevis, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus

Insertion: Third metacarpal bone

Action: Extends and abducts wrist
Name the Origin and insertion of the Extensor digitorum communis, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus

Insertion: Posterior surfaces of digits II - V

Action: Extends wrists and phalanges at joints of carpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints
Name the Origin and insertion of the Extensor digitorum minimi, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus

Insertion: Extensor aponeurosis of 5th digit

Action: Extends joints of 5th digit and wrist
Name the Origin and insertion of the extensor carpi ulnaris, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus and olecranon

Insertion: Base of 5th metacarpal bone

Action: Extends and adducts wrist
Name the Origin and insertion of the extensor pollicis longus, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Middle of body of ulna, lateral side

Insertion: Base of distal phalanx of thumb

Action: Extends joint of thumb; abducts joint of hand
Name the Origin and insertion of the extensor pollicis brevis, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Distal body of radius and interosseous ligament

Insertion: Base of first phalanx of thumb

Action: Extends joint of thumb; abducts joint of hand
Name the Origin and insertion of the abductor pollicis longus, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin:
1. Distal radius and ulna
2. Interosseous ligament

Insertion: Base of first metacarpal bone

Action: Abducts joints of thumb and joints of hand
Name the Origin and insertion of the Iliacus, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Iliac fossa

Insertion: Lesser trochanter of femus, along with psoas major

Action:
1. Flexes and rotates the thigh laterally at the hip joint
2. Flexes joints of vertebral column
Name the Origin and insertion of the Psoas major, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Transverse process of all lumbar vertebrae

Insertion: Lesser trpchanter, along with iliacus

Action:
1. Flexes and rotates thigh laterally at the hip joint
2. Flexes joints of vertebral column
Name the Origin and insertion of the Gluteus maximus, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin:
1. Iliac crest
2. Sacrum
3. Coccyx
4. Aponeurosis of the lumbar region

Insertion:
1. Gluteal tuberosity
2. Iliotibial tract

Action: Extends and rotates thigh laterally at the hip joint
Name the Origin and insertion of the Gluteus medius, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Lateral surface of ilium

Insertion: Greater trochanter

Action: Abducts and rotates thigh medially at the hip joint
Name the Origin and insertion of the Gluteus minimus, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Lateral surface of lower half of the ilium

Insertion: Greater trochanter

Action: Abducts thigh at the hip joint
Name the Origin and insertion of the Tensor fasciae latae, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Anterior border if ilium and iliac crest

Insertion: Iliotibial tract

Action: Abducts thigh at the hip joint
From where do the muscles of the upper limb receive their nerve supply?
The muscles of the upper limb receive their nerve supply from the Brachial plexus.

In general, muscles concerned with flexion, abduction and lateral rotation of the limb are innervated by nerves that arise from the upper part of the brachial plexus (C5 & C6 segments of the spinal cord).

Muscles concerned with extension, adduction and medial rotation of the limb are innervated by nerves that arise from the lover part of the brachial plexus (C7, C8, and T1 segments).
How would injury to the upper part of the brachial plexus affect the upper arm?
It would paralyze most of the flexors, abductors and lateral rotators of the limb and spare the other muscles.
In general, where are the flexors and pronators of the forearm and hand located?
On the medial and anterior aspect of the forearm and they originate on the medial epicondyle of the humerus or the ulna.
In general, where are the extensors and supinators of the forearm and hand located?
On the lateral and posterior aspect of the forearm, and they originate on the lateral epicondyle of the humerus or the radius.
Name the muscles of the superficial, intermediate and deep layers of the forearm flexor group.
Superficial:
1. Pronator teres
2. Flexor carpi radialis
3. Palmaris longus
4. Flexor carpi ulnaris
Intermediate:
1. Flexor digitorum Superficialis
Deep:
1. Flexor digitorum profundus
2. Flexor pollicis longus
3. Pronator quadratus
Name the muscles of the superficial and deep layers of the forearm extensors.
Superficial:
1. Extensor carpi radialis longus
2. Extensor carpi radialis brevis
3. Extensor digitorum
4. Extensor digiti minimi
5. Extensor carpi ulnaris
Deep:
1. Supinator
2. Abductor pollicis longus
3. Extensor pollicis brevis
4. Extensor pollicis longus
5. Extensor indicis
What is the prime supinator of the forearm when flexed? When extended? What is the prime Pronator?
Prime supinator when arm is flexed or when power is needed is the Biceps brachii.

Prime supinator when the forearm is extended is the supinator muscle.

The primary Pronator is the Pronator quadratus.
How is it possible to bring the tip of the thumb in contact with the palmar surfaces of the fingers? What is this specialized action called? How is it useful?
It possible to bring the tip of the thumb in contact with the palmar surfaces of the fingers because the thumb is set at a right angle to the plane of the palm.

This specialized movement is called opposition.

This movement makes grasping objects possible.
Intrinsic muscles of the hand
· These are small muscles that take origin and insert in the hand. They are responsible for precise finger and thumb movements.
· The intrinsic and extrinsic muscles work together to produce movement of the hand
· These muscles are divided into three groups:
1. Thenar
2. Intermediate (Deep)
3. Hypothenar
Name the Thenar Muscles, and what they act on (in general)
1. Abductor pollicis brevis
2. Flexor pollicis brevis
3. Opponens pollicis

These act on the thumb.
Name the Intermediate muscles of the hand.
1. Adductor pollicis (oblique and trasverse heads)
2. Lumbricales (4)
3. Palmar interossei (4)
4. Dorsal interossei (4)
Name the Hypothenar muscles of the hand.
1. Abductor digiti minimi
2. Flexor digiti minimi
3. Opponens digiti minimi
Name the Origin and insertion of the Abductor pollicis brevis, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin:
1. Flexor retinaculum
2. Scaphoid, and
3. Trapezium

Insertion: Proximal phalanx of thumb

Action: Abducts joint of thumb
Name the Origin and insertion of the Flexor pollicis brevis, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin:
1. Flexor retinaculum
2. Trapezius

Insertion: Proximal phalanx of thumb

Action: Flexes joint of thumb
Name the Origin and insertion of the Opponens pollicis (oblique and transverse heads), and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin:
1. Oblique head – capitate
2. Transverse head – 2nd and 3rd metacarpal bones

Insertion: Proximal phalanx of thumb

Action: Adducts joints of thumb
Name the Origin and insertion of the Lumbricales (4), and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Tendons of the flexor digitorum profundus

Insertion: Extensor expansions of digits II - V

Action:
1. Flexes digits at metacarpophalangeal joints
2. Extends digits at interphalangeal joints
Name the Origin and insertion of the Palmar interossei (4), and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin:
1. Medial side of 2nd metacarpal bone
2. Lateral sides of 4th and 5th metacarpal bones

Insertion: Proximal phalanges of index, ring and little fingers and extensor digitorum communis.

Action: Adducts fingers
Name the Origin and insertion of the Dorsal interossei, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Adjacent sides of metacarpal bones

Insertion:
1. Proximal phalanges of index and middle fingers (lateral sides)
2. Proximal phalanges of middle and ring fingers (medial sides)
3. Extensor digitorum communis

Action: Abducts fingers
Name the Origin and insertion of the abductor digiti minimi, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Pisiform and tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris

Insertion: Proximal phalanx of digit V

Action: Abducts joints of digit V
Name the Origin and insertion of the Flexor digiti minimi, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Flexor retinaculum and hook of hamate

Insertion: Proximal phalanx of digit V

Action: Aflexes joint of digit V
Name the Origin and insertion of the Opponens digiti minimi, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Flexor retinaculum and hook of hamate

Insertion: 5th metacarpal bone

Action: Opposes joints of digit V
Name the Origin and insertion of the Gracilis, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Inferior edge of symphys pubis

Insertion: Proximal medial surface of tibia

Action: Adducts thigh at hip joint; flexes and rotates leg at knee joint
Name the Origin and insertion of the Pectineus, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Pectineal line of pubis

Insertion: Distal to lesser trochanter of femur

Action: Adducts and flexes thigh at hip joint
Name the Origin and insertion of the Adductor longus of the thigh, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Pubis – below pubic crest

Insertion: Linea aspera of femur

Action: Adducts, flexes and laterally rotates thigh at hip joint
Name the Origin and insertion of the Adductor brevis of the thigh, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Inferior ramus of pubis

Insertion: Linea aspera of femur

Action: Adducts, flexes and laterally rotates thigh at hip joint
Name the Origin and insertion of the Adductor magnus of the thigh, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Inferior ramus of ischium and pubis

Insertion: Linea aspera and medial epicondyle of femur

Action: Adducts, flexes and laterally rotates thigh at hip joint
Name the Origin and insertion of the Sartorius, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Anterior superior iliac spine

Insertion: Medial surface of tibia

Action:
1. Flexes knee and hip joints
2. Abducts hip joint
3. Rotates thigh laterally at hip
4. Rotate leg medially at knee
Name the Origin and insertion of the Quadriceps femoris (each originate separately), and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin:
1. Rectus femoris – anterior superior iliac spine and lip of acetabulum
2. Vastus medialis – Greater trochanter and linea aspera of femur
3. Vastus lateralis - Medial surface and linea aspera of femur
4. Vastus intermedius – Anterior lateral surfaces if femur

Insertion: Patella by patellar tendon

Action: Extends leg at knee joint
Name the Origin and insertion of the Biceps femoris, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin:
1. Long head – ischial tuberosity
2. Short head – linea aspera of femur

Insertion: Head of fibula and lateral epicondyle of tibia

Action: Flexes knee joint; extends and laterally rotates thigh at hip joint
Name the Origin and insertion of the Semitendinosus, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Ischial tuberosity

Insertion: Proximal portion of medial surface of body of tibia

Action: Flexes knee joint; extends and medially rotates thigh at hip joint
Name the Origin and insertion of the Semimembranosus, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Ischial tuberosity

Insertion: Proximomedial surface

Action: Flexes knee joint; extends and medially rotates thigh at hip joint
Name the main extrinsic muscles of the fingers that are responsible for extension and flexion and the extrinsic muscles of the thumb.
These extrinsic muscles are responsible for the major movements of the fingers and thumb:
1. Extrinsic flexors of the fingers:
a. Flexor digitorum superficialis
b. Flexor digitorum profundus
2. Extrinsic extensor of the fingers – Extensor digitorum
3. Additional extensor of the index finger – Extensor indicis
4. Additional extensor of the little finger – Extensor digiti minimi
5. Extrinsic muscle of the thumb:
a. Abductor pollicis longus
b. Extensor pollicis longus
c. Extensor pollicis brevis
1. What is the arrangement of the superficial and deep flexor tendons of a digit?
2. How are these tendons held in position as they cross the wrist?
3. What is the function of the synovial tendon sheaths?
1. The tendons (superficial and deep) all attach to their corresponding finger or thumb at its most distal interphalangeal joint. The deep tendons run along the anterior (palmar) portion of the hand; the superficial tendons fun on the palmar side until they reach approximately the most proximal interphalangeal joint. Here the tendon splits and runs laterally down the finger or thumb.
2. The tendons are secured in position by the flexor retinaculum, which crosses the wrist area transversely.
3. Just a guess: The synovial tendon sheath secures the flexor tendons in place.
Analyze the upward and downward movement of floor push-ups. List the major muscles involved and the movements produced at the shoulder girdle, shoulder, and elbow joints with each phase. Specify whether each contraction is concentric or eccentric.
1.Upward movement:
a. Shoulder Girdle - protraction/ serratus anterior and pectoralis major/ concentric contraction
b. Shoulder joint - flexion of arm/ pectoralis major, and deltoid, coracobrachialis/ concentric contraction
c. Elbow joint - extension of forearm/ triceps brachii and anconeus/ concentric contraction

2.Downward movement:
a. Shoulder Girdle - retraction/ serratus anterior and pectoralis major/ eccentric contraction
b. Shoulder joint - extension of arm/ pectoralis major, and deltoid, coracobrachialis/ eccentric contraction
c. Elbow joint - flexion of forearm/ triceps brachii and anconeus/ eccentric contraction
Name the Origin and insertion of the Tibialis anterior, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Proximolateral surface and body of tibia

Insertion: 1st metatarsal bone and 1st cuneiform

Action: Dosiflexes ankle and inverts foot at ankle
Name the Origin and insertion of the extensor digitorum longus, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Proximolateral surface of tibia and anterior surface of fibula

Insertion: Extensor expansions of digits II - V

Action: Extends joints of digits II – V and dorsiflexes foot at ankle
Name the Origin and insertion of the Extensor hallucis longus, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Anterior surface of fibula and interosseous ligament

Insertion: Distal phalanx of digit I

Action: Extends joints of great toe and assists dorsiflexion of foot at ankle
Name the Origin and insertion of the Peronius tertius, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Anterior surface of fibula and interossius ligament

Insertion: Dorsal surface of 5th metatarsal bone

Action: Dorsiflexes and everts foot at ankle
Name the Origin and insertion of the Peroneus longus, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Lateral head of tibia and head & body of fibula

Insertion: 1st cuniform and metatarsal bone I

Action: Plantar flexes and everts foot at ankle
Name the Origin and insertion of the Peroneus brevis, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Lower aspect if fibula

Insertion: Metatarsal bone V

Action: Plantar flexes and everts foot at ankle
Name the Origin and insertion of the Gastrocnemius, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Lateral and medial epicondyle of femur

Insertion: Posterior surface or calcaneus

Action: Plantar flexes foot at ankle; flexes knee joint
Name the Origin and insertion of the Soleus, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Posterior aspect of fibula and tibia

Insertion: Calcaneus

Action: Plantar flexes foot at ankle
Name the Origin and insertion of the Plantaris, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Lateral supracondylar ridge of femur

Insertion: Calcaneus

Action: Plantar flexes foot at ankle
Name the Origin and insertion of the Popliteus, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Lateral condyle of femur

Insertion: Upper posterior aspect of tibia

Action: Flexes and medially rotates leg at knee joint
Name the Origin and insertion of the Flexor hallucis longus, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Posterior aspect of fibula

Insertion: Distal phalanx of great toe

Action: Flexes joint of distal phalanx of great toe
Name the Origin and insertion of the Flexor digitorum longus, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Posterior surface of tibia

Insertion: Distal phalanges of digits II - V

Action: Flexes joints of distal phalanges of digits II – V
Name the Origin and insertion of the Tibialis posterior, and the movement that is produced when it contracts.
Origin: Tibia and fibula and interosseous ligament

Insertion: Navicular, cuniform, cuboid, and metatarsal bones II - IV

Action: Plantar flexes and inverts foot at ankle; supports arches
What are the main areas that the nerves that innervate the lower limbs arise from? What muscles does each area innervate? Name two of the major nerves that arise from one of these areas.
1. Lumbar plexus:
a. Femoral nerve – arises form the lumbar plexus; innervates the front thigh muscles
b. Obturator nerver - arises form the lumbar plexus; innervates the muscles of the adductor compartment of the thigh
2. Sacral plexus: Innervates the muscles of the gluteal region, the posterior thigh, the leg and the foot
Name the main arteries of the lower limb, and the muscles that each supplies.
1. Femoral artery – the main artery of the lower limb; it supplies the anterior and posterior thigh muscles
2. Obturator artery – supplies the medial aspect of the thigh (adductors)
3. Popliteal artery – supplies the muscles of the lower leg
When flexing at the hip, and bending the knee at the same time (e.g. hiking uphill), what muscle contracts vigorously, and why? (Please name the other muscles involved in flexion of the hip in this case.)
*The Sartorius muscle contracts vigorously in flexion of the hip when the knee is also flexed. The lateral ratatory action of the Sartorius in this situation, balances the medial rotatory action of the Tensor fasciae latae.
Main muscles:
1. Iliopsoas
2. Pectineus
3. *Rectus femoris – active when the knee is extended (e.g. kick)
4. Sartorius

Other muscles that assist:
1. Tensor fasciae latae
2. Adductor brevis and longus
3. Gracilis
What would happen if the Iliopsoas were paralyzed?
Paralysis of the Iliopsoas would result in:
1. A forward tilt of the pelvis
2. Increase in the lumbar curvature of the spine
3. Would not be able to assist abdominal muscles in supine double leg lifts or straight led sit-ups
In the extension of the thigh at the hip, what muscles are most effective in an erect standing position (e.g. standing, walking, etc.) compared to when the trunk of hips are flexed, and the legs are pushing on a resistance (e.g. jumping, lifting, climbing, etc.)
1. Erect – the Biceps femoris, Semitendinosus and the Semimembranosus contract strongly
2. Against resistance – Gluteus maximus is most effective (in rising from a chair of in climbing stairs, the trunk is flexed to activate the Gluteus maximus.
All muscles involved in extension of the thigh at the hip:
1. Gluteus maximus
2. Biceps femoris
3. Semitendinosus
4. Semimembranosus
5. Lower fiber of the Adductor magnus
In which situation would the Gluteus maximus be active during abduction of the leg at the hip?
Gluteus maximus assists in abduction of the hip only when the knee is flexed at the same time.
What is the most important function of the gluteus minimus and gluteus medius?

Why is it so important?
Their most important function is to prevent sagging of the pelvis. For example, if a person were to stand on their left foot, then the Gluteus minimus and medius of the left side would prevent the right side of the pelvis from drooping.

This fundamental stability is absolutely important to normal walking. If the left gluteal muscle were paralyzed, the person would lean heavily to the right each time the right leg was raised, which would result in a waddling gait.
Antagonistic muscles often work ________________ to one another. Give an example.
· Synergistically; they often act synergistically to one another when stabilizing a joint.
· For example: The adductor muscles of the thigh (Gluteus minimus & Gluteus medius) are antagonistic to the abductor muscles of the thigh (Adductor brevis, longus, magnus; Gracilis, and Pectineus), but they often act synergistically when stabilization of the joint is necessary.
What is flat foot?
Flat foot is a condition in which the medial longitudinal arch of the foot collapses.

Standing for so long that the longitudinal arches of the foot can no longer meet the demands placed upon them can result in this condition. In such a situation, the ligaments would stretch under the pressure of the body weight, and thus fail to lend proper support to the arches, resulting in the collapse of the medial longitudinal arch.
Name one muscle (prime mover) that performs each of the following functions listed:

1. Compression of abdominal contents
2. Abduction of arm
3. Extension of thigh
4. Supination of forearm
1. Transversus abdominis
2. Deltoid
3. Semitendinosus
4. Supinator
Name one muscle (prime mover) that performs each of the following functions listed:

1. Flexion of proximal phalanges of fingers
2. Extention of fingers
3. Dorsiflexion of foot
4. Inversion of foot
5. Extension of trunk
1. Flexor digitorum superficialis
2. Extensor digitorum communis
3. Tibialis anterior
4. Tibialis posterior
5. Erector spinae
Name one muscle (prime mover) that performs each of the following functions listed:

1. Flexion of vertebral column
2. Adduction of arm against resistance
3. Flexion of thigh as in kicking a ball
4. Pronation of forearm
5. Inverts the foot
1. Rectus abdominis
2. Sternal fibers of the Pectoralis major, Latissmus dorsi, Teres major and the posterior fibers of Deltoid, and the long head of the Triceps brachii
3. Rectus femoris
4. Pronator quadratus
5. Tibialis posterior