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36 Cards in this Set

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The muscular system refers ONLY to what muscle tissue
Skeletal muscle
(not cardiac or smooth)
lever systems explain...
how muscles act with or against each other to bring about movements.
A lever is...
a rigid bar that moves on a FIXED POINT.
the fixed point around which a lever moves is called a
Fulcrum
What is the applied force on a lever called
effort
the purpose of applying EFFORT is to move a resistance or..
load.
In human lever systems, what is the:

-levers?
-fulcrums?
-effort?
-load?
Bones

Joints

Muscle contraction

The weight of the body part itself + any other weight.
Mechanical ADVANTAGE is characterized as having the load (close/far) from the fulcrum and providing the effort (close/far) from the fulcrum.
close, far.
What is an example of a mechanical advantage lever system?
Car Jack

(when effort is farther from the fulcrum, than is the load, a smaller effort can lift a larger load)
Mechanical disadvantage is characterized as having the load (closer/further) from the fulcrum than the effort?
Further
What is an example of mechanical disadvantage?
Carrying a shovel full of dirt.
From NOTES: "The operation of skelletal muscles involves...
leverage"
First class levers

-Analogous name
-relative positions
- Mechanical example
- class example
- mechanical advantage/disadvantage?
see-saw levers

Load, Fulcrum, Effort

Scisors

Falling asleep (muscles keep head from falling forward)

Can work under both.
Second class levers

-Order of forces
-Mechanical example
-Class example
- Mechanical advantage/disadvantage
Fulcrum, Load, Effort

Wheelbarrow

Standing on tip-toes

ALL AT MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE!
Second class levers

-Rare/Common
- Advantages
- Disadvantages
Very rare in the human body

Stength (Very strong system (Only mechanical advantage)

Speed and motion are sacraficed.
Third-class levers

-Order of forces
-Mechanical example
-Class example
-Mechanical
avantage/disadvantage
Load, Effort, Fulcrum

Tweezers

Lifting weights around the elbow. (bicep workout)

Mechanical DISadvantage ALWAYS!
Third class levers

-Rare/Common
-Strong/Weak
The most common of lever systems

Weaker than second class but they have better motion and speed.
What are the classes of fassicle arrangement (4)
Parallel
Convergent
Pennate
Circular
Parallel Fassicles of Muscles

-Arrangement
-Strength/endurance
-example
fasicles run along the long axis of the muscle itself.

Not very strong, good endurance

Sartorius, Rectus Abdominus (bicep, sternocleidomastoid)
Convergent fassicles

-Arrangement
-Strength/endurance
-examples
Have WIDE ORIGINS and NARROW INSERTIONS

Stronger than parallel

Pectoralis major
Pennate

-Arrangement
-Strength/endurance
-Example
fasicles are short and attach obliquely to a tendon that runs the length of the muscle.
Pennate fassicles can be either unipennate, bipennate or multipennate depending on
the number of sides in which it attaches to the tendon.
Circular Fasicles

-Arrangement
-example
Concentric rings around orifice

Obicularis Oculi, Obicularis Ori
According to Tillman, circular fassicles are not _________________ b/c _________.
Sphincters;

circular fasicles are sphincteral (circular) but NOT classified as sphincters.
What is a MAJOR difference between parallel/convergent arrangements and pennate/circular.
in parallel/convergent fasicle arrangements the muscles extend the length of the muscle.
Skelletal Muscles are FUNCTIONALLY classified into four categories. What are they?
Agonists
Antagonists
Synergists
Fixators
Agonist

-often called
- a muscle that has the...
-example
Primary mover

major responsibility for a specific motion.

Biceps Brachii
Antagonist

-often called
- a muscle that has the...
-example
"against the leader"

job of opposing or reversing a particular movement.

Triceps Brachii
Synergist

-functions
1.) To add a little more strength to the agonists.

2.) MORE IMPORTANTLY, to stabilize the movement. Several Agonists articulate in several places and cause unwanted movements. Synergists stop these unwanted movements.
Fixators

-Function
Fixators are considered a class of synergist that function to hold a bone firmly in place when an agonist acts on it.
Muscles can be named according to all of the following:
Location
Shape
Size
Direction of fassicles
Location of attachments
Number of origins
Actions
Recall that all muscles develop from what embryonic layer
mesoderm
Musculature of the VISCERAL ORGANS includes both...
This muscle originates from the...
skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle.

splanchnic muscles (early gut)
Musculature of the PHARNGEAL ARCH MUSCLES develop around the...
embryonic pharnyx (from the 4-7th somitomeres.
Musculature for the axial muscles develop from
myotomes and some somitomeres.
Musculature of the limb muscles develops from...
the lateral parts of nearby myotomes.