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48 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
skeleton
includes the bones, cartilage, ligaments, and other connective tissues
chondroblasts
cells that produce the matrix of cartilage
chondrocytes
chondroblasts that have been secreted into the matrix
lacunae
spaces in cartilage
articulations
joints
perichondrium
dense connective tissue covering hyaline cartilage
hyaline cartilage
most abundant, trachea, larynx, articular joint on bones, epiphyseal plates, fetal skeletan, transluscent, no visible collagen fibers
fibrocartilage
has an extracellular matrix with thick collagen fibers that help resist tensile and compressional forces, invertebral discs, knee
elastic cartilage
highly branched elastic fibers, ear
interstitial growth
cartilage growth from within
appositional growth
growth along the outside edge, or periphery
bone (osseous) connective tissue
primary component of bones
calcification
deposition of minerals in bone matrix which makes them hard
hemopoiesis
the process of blood cell production
red bone marrow
blood cells are produced in this connective tissue located in spongy bone
yellow bone marrow
as children get older, the red bone marrow turns into this fatty tissue
long bones
upper limb, lower limb
short bones
length nearly equal to width, writs and foot bones, kneww
sesamoid bones
tiny, seed shaped bones along the tendons of some muscle
flat bones
roof of skull, shoulder blades, sternum, ribs
irregular bones
vertebrae
diaphysis
shaft of long bones
epiphysis
knobby region at ends of long bones
metaphysis
region in a mature bone sandwiched between the diaphysis and epiphysis
medullary cavity
hollow space inside bone
endosteum
incomplete cellular membrane that covers all internal surfaces of bone
periosteum
tough sheath that covers the outer surface of the bone
osteoprogenitor cells
stem cells derived from the mesenchyme, produce another stem cell and a "committed" cell that matures to an osteoblast
osteoblasts
cuboidal structure, secrete the initial semisolid form of bone matrix (osteoid)
osteocytes
mature bone cells derived from osteoblasts, reside in lucanae
osteoclasts
large, multinuclear, phagocytic cells, involved in bone resorption
osteolysis
release of the stored calcium and phosphate from the bone matrix
hydroxyapatite
crystals that deposit around collagen fibers that lead to hardening of the bone
trabeculae
open lattice of narrow plates of bone in spongy bone
osteon
cylindrical structure of mature compact bone
perforating canals, circumferential lamellae, and interstitial lamellae
see drawing on page 156
intramembranous ossification
mesenchyme is the source of bones is in the area of the future dermis, produces flat bones of skull, facial bones, collarbone
woven bone, or primary bone
newly formed bone connective tissue that is immature and not well organized
lamellar bone
secondary bone, compact and spongy bone form
nutrient artery and nutrient vein
supplies the diaphysis of a long bone
metaphyseal blood vessels
provide blood supply to the diaphyseal side of the epiphyseal plate, where new bone ossification forms
periosteal blood vessels
provide the blood to the superficial osteons within the compact bone at the external edge of the shaft
molecules that affect bone maintenance and growth
study table 6.1 on page 164
classification of bone fractures
study table 6.2 on page 167
foramen
hole or passageway
condyle
smooth, oval prominance
osteopenia
bones of the skeleton become thinner and wear because of age
osteoporosis
a condition characterized by reduction in bone mass sufficient to compromise normal function (more in women than in men)