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94 Cards in this Set

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tissues
groups of similar cells and extracellular products that carry out a common function
histology
study of tissues and their relationships within organs
four principle types of tissues
epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous
tissue functions and locations
review table 4.1 on page 82
Epithelial tissue
lines every body surface, cavities, external and internal, no blood vessels penetrate
apical surface
epithelial, exposed to external environment or internal body space
basal surface
fixed, or bottom surface where epithelium is attached to the underlying connective tissue
basement membrane
a thin extracellular layer that is between the epithelium and the underlying connective tissue/basal and reticular lamina
basal lamina
contains collegen fibers as well as protein and carb macromolecules that are secreted by the cells of epithelium
reticular lamina
contians protein fibers and both kinds of macromolecules
intercellular junctions
specialized connections in lateral membranes that strongly bind epithelial cells together
tight junction (zonula)
encircles epithelial cells near apical surface and completely attaches each cell to its neighbor
adhering junction
formed completely around the cell, really only needed on the apical surface
desmosome
small region that holds cells together and provides resistance to mechanical stress at a single point, but does not encircle whole cell ("button or snap")
gap junction
formed across the intercellular gap between neighboring cells, bridged by six transmembrane proteins called connexons, direct passageway between cells
simple epithelium
one cell layer thick
stratified epithelium
contains two or more layers of epithelial cells
pseudostratified epithelium
looks layered becausaed the cells'nuclei are distributed at different levels between apical and basal surfaces (all touch basal, but not all apical)
squamous cells
flat, wide, and irregular in shape
cuboidal cells
about as tall as they are wide
columnar cells
slender and taller than they are wide
transitional cells
can readily change their shape or appearance depending on how stretched the epithelium becomes
Types of Epithelium
review table 4.2 on page 86
endothelium
the epithelium that lines the lumen of the blood and lymphatic vessels and the heart
mesothelium
simple squamous epithelium that lines the internal walls of the pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities
microvilli
tiny, cytoplasmic projections on the apical surface that increase the surface area for secretion and absoption
nonkeratinized stratified squamour epithelium
remain alive all the way to its apical surface, kept moist with mucus
keratinized statified squamous epithelium
apical surface layers of the cells are dead, lack nuclei, filled with tough, protective protein called keratin
a key to determining transitional epithelium from nonkeritinized stratified squamous epithelium
there are a handful of binucleated cells
glands
individual cells or multicellular organs composed predominantly of epithelial tissue
endocrine glands
lack ducts and secrete their products directly into the interstitial fluid and bloodstream
exocrine glands
originate from an invagination of epithelium, maintain contact with surface through duct (tube that secretes)
unicellular exocrine gland
predominantly nonsecretory
acini
section of a exocrine gland that produces the secretion
duct
transports the secretion to the epithelium
septa
partition the gland internally into compartments called lobes
stroma
connective tissue framework of the gland
parenchyma
the functional cells of the gland that produce and secrete the gland products
tubuloacinar gland
a gland with both secretory tubules and secretory acini
serous glands
produce and secrete a nonviscous, watery fluid like sweat, milk, tears
mucus glands
secrete mucin, forms mucus when mixed with water, in mouth
mixed glands
salivary glands contain both serous and mucus cells
merocrine glands
package their secretions in structures called secretory vesicles, stay intact
holocrine glands
formed from cells that accumulate a product and then the entire cell disintegrates
apocrine glands
composed of cells that accumulate their secretory products within the apical portion of their cytoplasm, apical portion is pinched off to delivery secretory product
Connective tissue
the most diverse, abundant, widely distributed, and microscopically variable of the tissues
three basic components of connective tissue
cells, protein fibers, and ground substance
collagen fibers
strong and stretch-resistant protein fibers
elastic fibers
flexible and risilient protein fibers
reticular fibers
interwoven framework of protein fibers
extracellular matrix
formed by ground substance and protein fibers
ground substance
nonliving material made from protein and carbohydrate and variable amounts of water
mesenchyme
connective tissue with star-shaped or spindle-shaped cells in a gel-like ground substance, source for all other connective tissue
mucous connective tissue
in umbilical cord, absent in adults
resident cells
permanently contained in the connective tissue
wandering cells
move throughout the connective tissue and are involved in immune protection and repair
cells of connective tissue proper
review table 4.7 on page 99
leukocytes
white blood cells
connective tissue proper
review table 4.8 on page 101
How do make more fat cells when they don't divide?
mesenchymal cells can provide additional adipose cells if the body has extra nutrients
stroma
structural framework
dense connective tissues
composed primarily of protein fibers and have proportionately less ground subbstance, collagenous tissues, collagen major fiber type
dense regular connective tissue
found in tendons and ligaments, lacks a lot of blood vessels
dense irregular connective tissue
scattered meshwork, deep portion of the dermis, withstand forces from any direction, cartilage, bone, supports and houses internal organs
elastic connective tissue
branching elastic fibers and more fibroblasts and densely packed collagen fibers, deform and then return to normal shape
supporting connective tissue
cartilage and bone
chondrocytes
mature cartilage cells
hyaline cartilage
most common type and weakest, forms fetal skeleton, nose
fibrocartilage
good shock absorber, no perchondrium
elastic cartilage
extremely resilient and flexible, found in epiglottis and external ear
osseous connective tissue
bone, 1/3 organic, 2/3 inorganic
periosteum
similar to perichondrium of cartilage (protective irregular connective tissue)
compact bone
completely solid and usually forms the hard outer shell of the bone
spongy bone
fills the interior of a bone, contains spaces or latticework structure
ostens
run parallel to shafts of bone, nerves and blood vessels run through its canals
blood
fluid connective tissue composed of cells called formed elements
erythrocytes
red blood cells
leukocytes
white blood cells
platelets
blood cells involved in clotting
plasma
dissolved protein fibers and the watery ground substance form extracellular matrix of blood
cutaneous membrane
the skin
muscle tissue
specialized fibers that respond to stimulation from the nervous system by undergoing internal changes that cause them to shorten
skeletal muscle tissue
long, cylindrical muscle cells called muscle fibers, multinucleated, STRIATED AND VOLUNTARY
cardiac muscle tissue
confined to the thick middle layer of the heart wall, STRIATED AND INVOLUNTARY
intercalated discs
strong gap junctions between cardiac muscle tissue cells
smooth (visceral) muscle tissue
lacks striation, found in walls of most viscera, INVOLUNTARY as in stomach, blood vessels, uterus
glial cells
support, protect, and provide a framework for neurons
dendrites
short, branched processes that receive incoming signals from other cells
axon
long nerve cell process, carries outgoing signals (only one)
metaplasia
transformation of epithelium
regeneration
replacement of damaged or deal cells with the same type of cell
fibrosis
binds "broken" parts back together, scar tissue does not restore function
apoptosis
cells shrink and are quickly phagocytized by macrophages, no inflammatory response, fingers form this way
necrosis
cell death due to damage that is not reversible, inflammatory response