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46 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
NEURON
Cell that carries messages throughout the nervous system
CELL BODY
Largest part of a typical neuron; contains the nucleus and much of the cytoplasm
DENDRITE
Extension of the cell body of a neuron that carries impulses from the environment or from other neurons toward the cell body
AXON
Long fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body of a neuron
SYNAPSE
Location at which a neuron can transfer an impulse to another cell.
CEREBRUM
Area of the brain responsible for all voluntary activities of the boday
BRAIN STEM
Structure that connects the brain and spinal cord; includes the medulla oblongata and the pons
THALAMUS
Brain Structure that receives message from the sense organs and relays the information to the proper region of the cerebrum for further processing
HYPOTHALAMUS
Brain structure that acts as a control center for recognition and analysis of hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger, and body temperature
BONE MARROW
Soft tissue inside the cavities within bones
CARTILAGE
Strong connective tissue that supports the body and is softer and more flexible than bone.
OSSIFICATION
Process of bone formation, during which cartilage is replaced by bone
LIGAMENTS
Strip of tough connective tissue that holds bones together at a joint
TENDONS
Tough connective tissue that joins skeletal muscles to bones
MYOCARDIUM
Thick middle muscle layer of the heart; pumps blood through the circulatory system
ATRIUM
Upper chamber of the heart that receives and holds blood that is about to enter the ventricle
VENTRICLE
Lower chamber of the heart that pumps blood out of the heart
PULMONARY CIRCULATION
Pathway of circulation between the heart and the lungs
SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION
Pathway of curculation between the heart and the rest of the body except the lungs
VALVE
Flap of connective tissue between an atrium and a ventricle, or in a vein, that prevents backflow of blood
PACEMAKER
Small group of cardiac muscle cells in the right atrium that "set the pace" for the heart as a whole; also known as the sinoatrial node
AORTA
Large blood vessel in mammals through which blood travels after it leaves the left ventricle
ARTERY
Large blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the tissues of the body
CAPILLARY
Smallest blood vessel; brings nutrients and oxygen to the tissues and absorbs carbon dioxide and waste product
VEIN
In plants, a cluster of vascular tissue in leaves;
In animals, a blood vessel that returns blood to the heart.
PLASMA
Straw-colored fluid that makes up about 55 percent
of blood
HEMOGLOBIN
Iron-containing protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body
PLATELETS
Cell fragment released by bone marrow that helps in blood clotting
PHARYNX
Muscular tube at the end of the gastrovascular cavity, or throat, that connects the mouth with the rest of the digestive tract and serves as a passageway for air and food
TRACHEA
Hollow plant cell in xylem tissue with thick cell walls that resist pressure
LARYNX
Structure in the throat containing the vocal cords
BRONCHUS
Passageway leading from the trachea to a lung
ALVEOLUS
Tiny air sac at the end of bronchiole in the lungs that provides surface area for gas exchange to occur
ESOPHAGUS
Food tube connecting the mouth to the stomach
PERISTALSIS
Rhythmic muscular contractions that squeeze food through the esophagus into the stomach
CHYME
Mixture of stomach fluids and food produced in the stomach by contracting stomach muscles
SMALL INTESTINE
Digestive organ in which most chemical digestion takes place
PANCREAS
Gland that produces hormones that regulate blood sugar; produces enzymes that break down carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids; and produces sodium bicarbonate, a base that neutralizes stomach acid
LIVER
Large organ just above the stomach that produces bile
LARGE INTESTINE
Colon; organ that removes water from the undigested materials that pass through it
KIDNEY
Organ that removes urea, excess water, and other waste products from the blood
NEPHRON
Blood-filtering unite in the renal cortex of the kidney
URETHRA
Tube that carries urine from the bladder and releases it from the body; in males, tube through which semen is released from the body
EXOCRINE GLANDS
Gland that releases its secretions through tubelike structures called ducts
ENDOCRINE GLANDS
Gland that releases its secretions directly into the bloodstream
Pituitary Gland
Gland in the base of the skull that secretes nine hormones that directly regulate many body functions and control the actions of several other endocrine glands