Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 5 steps in the course of menopause
1. Depletion of responsive ovarian follicles 2. ↑ # of anovulatory cycles 3. ↓ effects of E-P on H-P w/↑ in LH & FSH 4. Ovarian failure 5. Non-ovarian sources of estrogen.
Are age of menarche, race, parity, height, mothers age at menopause, or better nutrition good indicators of timing of menopause?
No. There is some evidence of mothers & daughters having similar timing, but better nutrition doesnn't play a role bcs timing hasn't changed since ancient times.
List 4 possible predictors of menopausal timing.
Earlier menopause: Smoking hx (dose relationship), Thin, High altitude. Later: Obesity
List 5 symptoms of menopause
Change in menstrual cycle, Vasomotor symptoms (hot flashes), Insomnia (poss due to flushes), Fatigue (poss due to insomnia), Forgetfulness (poss due to fatigue)
Describe the changes in the menstrual cycle seen in menopause.
Initially decreased due to shortened follicular phase→ Longer cycle due to longer foll phase→Irreg bleeding due to anovulation→Amenorrhea
How long is the transition period of menopause between having periods & amenorrhea?
4y or more is average
Hot flashes only occur in __ exposed individuals, are more frequent at __, and are associated w/ but not caused by __ surges (it's something at the __ level or above).
estrogen; night; LH; GnRH
How common are hot flashes before & after menopause?
25% of women have them before; 50% have them for >5y
List 4 anatomic changes of menopause
Breasts atrophy & lose support; Vaginal atrophy; Atrophy of pelvic support (↑ urinary incontinence & pelvic prolapse), Thinning of skin
What are the changes in endogenous hormones after menopause?
Elevated LH & FSH (indep of estrogen replacement), Stable testosterone levels (fr ovarian stroma due to LH), ↓Androstenedione by 50% (bcs of adrenals), ↑Estrone (fr androstenedione convrsn), ↓SHBG (so ↑ free hormones)
What are 2 implications of longer life span in women?
Most women outlive their spouse & tend to be more economically disadvantaged & Evidence of chronic estrogen deprivation
What is the definition of osteoporosis?
Low bone mass; Bone mineral density >2.5 SD's below reference mean
What is the problem with osteoporosis?
Bone microarchitecture deteriorates, bone fragility increases, and risk of fracture increases
What is the typical rate of postmenopausal bone loss? What is the result?
2-3% bone mass/year for up to 10y & continued loss of 1-2%/yr. 10x increased bone fxr in women compared to men; vertebral fxr is 60% of women >60yo if not tx; Tooth loss
Which type of bone is more sensitive to estrogen deficiency & remodeling? What does this mean in terms of fxr locations?
Trabecular bone is more sensitive than cortical bone; vertebral, mandibular, hip, distal radius
What are the risk factors for osteoporosis?
Race (Caucasian or Asian), Light colored skin & hair, Underwt, Smoker, Inactivity, Glucocorticoid therapy, FHx, Advanced age, Estrogen deficiency, Low Ca2+, Increased EtOH intake
Who should get BMD testing? (3)
All PM women who present w/ fx; All women on tx regimen (to evaluate efficacy of Rx), Women whose decision to begin tx would be influenced by the results
What is the effect of antiresorptive drugs?
Decreases both the rates of bone resorption (in wks) & formation (in mo); Increases BMD by 5-10% for first 2-3y then plateaus, reducing risk of fxr by 50%
Is depression in PM women caused by menopause?
No, it is reactive depression due to changes in lifestyle, family, aging, being alone, etc
How are PM women managed?
Psychological support, Annual exams (screening for CA, metabolic disorders, CVD, degen dz), Behavioral issues (diet, exercise, wt, Ca2+ intake), Hormone/Estrogen replacement
What are the pros & cons for HRT? What was not addressed by the study?
Pros: Decreased colorectal CA & fxrs. Cons: Increased CAD, Stroke, PE. Not addressed: Qual of Life, Mental/ Cognitive health, Genital atrophy, Use a prevention, not tx
What are 4 alternative therapies for HRT. What are the SE's for each?
Dong Quai: little estrogen effect & sig SE's; Black Cohash; Evening primrose (expensive, doesn't help flushes); Ginseng (often has added caffeine; doesn't help flushes)