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99 Cards in this Set

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Articulation disorders
Cleft lip/ palate
elongated opening.
occurs on one or both sides.
involves lip, palate, combinations.
Cleft Lip/ palate classifications
Unilateral incomplete
Unilateral complete
Bilateral incomplete
bilateral complete
Causes of Cleft Lip/ Palate
Unsure.
Maternal diet, medications, radiation, rubella, stress, genetic.
Developmental issues with Cleft Lip/ Palate
Feeding problems/ air pressure, feeding time, limited food intake, choking, nasal regurgitation, poor weight gain.
Middle ear disease, psychological issues, slower language and articulation development.
Articulation disorders.
Developmental dysarthria.
Abnormal facial muscle tonus
Low tone- drooping, drooling
High tone- taut/ grimaces
Difficulty with rapid speech and non- speech.
Articulation discorder
Developmental apraxia
Defecit in programming, combining, sequencing of speech elements.
Articulation disorder
Hearing loss
Artic delay due to infections/ temporal hearing loss.
Cerebral Palsy
What is it?
Brain abnormality of motor system
Classifications of Cerebral palsy
Neuromotor-
Spasticity- too much tone
Athetotis- involuntary contractions
Mixed
Ataxia- incoordination/ lack of balance
Articulation Evaluation
interview, audiometric testing, oral motor assesment, articulation test
Disorders of fluency
Stuttering
Syllable repitition, sound repitition, sound prolongations, sound blocks, non speech behaviors
Theories of stuttering
Diagnostic theory
normal disfluencies are labeled as stuttering
parent creates an environment that the difference is a handicap.
stuttering begins not in childs mouth, but in parents ears
Theories of stuttering
Psychological Theories
stuttering is a mechanism to repress unwanted feelings
psychotherapy to uncover hidden feelings rather than direct therapy for stuttering
theories of suttering
neurological theories
neither side of the brain is dominant in controlling motor speech
Theories of suttering
motor theories
abnormal airway pilation reflex (APR)
-discoordination b/w phonation and breathing.
Laryngeal stress
Theories of stuttering
Focus of contemporary research
relationship b/w stuttering and CNS
Stuttering and brain functions
Classifications of this Articulation disorder:
Unilateral complete, bilateral complete, unilateral incomplete, bilateral incomplete.
Cleft/ Lip Palate
Characteristics of this articulation disorder:
Elongated opening, failure of parts to fuse/ merge
Occurs on one or both sides
Cleft Lip/ Palate
Causes of this articulation disorder:
Maternal diet, medications, radiation, rubelle, stress, genetics.
Cleft Lip/ Palate
Effects on speech of this articulation disorder:
Slower language and articulation development.
Cleft Lip/ Palate
Characteristics of this articulation disorder:
Low tone: Drooping, drooling
High tone: taut/ grimaces
Developmental dysarthria
Effect of this articulation disorder on speech:
Difficulty with rapid speech and non speech.
Developmental dysarthria
Effect on speech of this articulation disorder:
problems with programming, combining, sequencing
Developmental apraxia.
Brain abnormality of motor system
Cerebral palsy
Too much tone
spasticity
Effects on speech of this articulation disorder:
Slower language and articulation development.
Cleft Lip/ Palate
Too much tone
spasticity
Brain abnormality of motor system
Cerebral palsy
too mch tone.
speech interrupted by breath/ voice breaks
spasticity
involuntary contractions
lack of respiration/ monotone voice
Facial grimacing
athetotis
incoordination/ lack of balance
slurred effortful speech
Ataxia
part of articulation affected by cerebral palsy
hypernasaltiy
tongue lip and jaw coordination
Normal vs stuttering?
word, phrase, sentence repititions, hesitations/ pauses, interjections
Normal dysfluencies
normal vs stuttering?
syllable, sound repititions, sound prolongations, sound blocks, non speech behavior
stuttering
Theory of stuttering:
normal dysfluencies are labeled as stuttering. parents create an environment that is different= handicap. stuttering begins in parents ears.
Diagnosogenic theory
Theories of stuttering:
stuttering is a mechanism to repress unwanted feelings. psychotherapy to uncover hidden feelings rather than direct therapy for stuttering
Psychological theories
Theory of stuttering:
neither side of the brain is dominant in controlling motor speech
Neurological theory
Theory of stuttering:
abnormal airway pilation reflex (APR). discoordination b/w phonation and breathing. laryngeal stress.
motor theories
Theory of stuttering:
relationship b/w stuttering and CNS
stuttering and brain functions.
focus of contemporary research
Therapy Approach to stuttering:
stuttering is a symptom: no direct treatment. ABC focus
psychological approach
Affective
Behavior
Cognition
ABC apprach (psychological approach)
Therapy Approach to stuttering:
shaping of fluent speech
find an easy fluent way to speak
modify speech approach
Therapy Approach to stuttering:
root of stuttering: struggle to be fluent
learn to stutter with less effort
goal: Adequate communication with stuttering, not avoiding stuttering.
modifying stuttering approach
disorder of fluency:
rapid speech rate. slurred/ omitted sounds.
Cluttering
disorder of fluency:
Acquired. linked to neurological event.
neurogenic stuttering
disorder of fluency:
related to anxiety
disturbances.
associated with specific speaking situations.
psychogenic stuttering
Voice disorders related to vocal fold tissue changes:
swollen red vocal folds.
disrupts normal vibration.
Traumatic laryngitis
Voice disorders related to vocal fold tissue changes:
small fibrous bumps/ calluses on borders of the vocal folds
vocal nodules
Voice disorders related to vocal fold tissue changes:
small fluid filled sacs
soft and compliant
vocal polyps
Voice disorders related to vocal fold tissue changes:
wart-like growth along the vocal tract and respiratory system
Papailloma
complete loss of voice
aphonia
change in voice quality
dysphonia
double voice where each fold vibrates at a different rate
diplophonia
Voice disorders related to vocal fold tissue changes:
persistent hoarseness.
swallowing problems.
swelling in throat.
Carcinoma
permanent opening in neck
stoma
Air trapped in esophagus
air belched back
air modified by articulators
esophageal speech
trachea attached to stoma for breathing which no longer occurs through nose of mouth
tracheostomy
vibrator substituting vibration of vf
electrolarynx
a small opening b/w the esophagus and trachea. a valve keeps food out of the trachea but lets air into the esophagus for esophageal speech.
tracheoesophageal puncture
Neurological voice disorder:
damage to one or both laryngeal nerves (vagus #10)
Occurs during surgery
vocal fold paralysis
Characteristics of vocal fold paralysis
breathy voice (unilateral)
aphonia (bilateral)
treatment of unilateral vf paralysis
recovery of nerve w/in 6 months
treatment for bilateral vf paralysis
surgery to create open airway for breathing
stoma tube b/c cant open vf. or there will be no protection.
Neurological voice disorder:
dysfunction of neural signals controlling vf.
spasmodic dysphonia
type of spasmodic dysphonia:
vf spasm apart
less frequent type
breathy voice
abductor SD
type of spasmodic dysphonia:
vf close tightly during speech
strained/ strangled voice quality or voice stoppage
adductor SD
treatment for spasmodic dysphonia
(both types)
Botox
toxin injection that stops contraction of vf muscle
treatment for spasmodic dysphonia
(adductor only)
surgery-
cut one of the nerves to create unilateral vf paralysis
swallowing disorder
dysphagia
oral prepatory stage
first stage of swallowing
oral transport stage
second stage of swallowing
pharyngeal stage
3rd stage of swallowing
esophageal stage
4th stage of swallowing
prepare food in mouth.
teeth, lips, tongue, soft palate hold food in oral cavity
1. oral prep. stage
tongue propels bolus into pharynx by pressing it up against the hard palate and pushing backward.
Loss of bolus control
2. oral transport stage
movement of bolus through pharynx and into esophagus.
food does not clear throat
risk of choking
3. pharyngeal stage
transport of bolus from esophagus to stomach
reflux
4. esophageal stage
assessment of dysphagia:
identification/ estimation of food aspirated
effects of different food consistencies
videofluroscopy
Components of language:
study of sounds of speech
FORM
phonology
components of language:
FORM
structure of sentences
Syntax
components of language:
FORM
grammar, putting the right endings on words
morphology
stands alone. cannot be divided. nouns or adverbs.
free morphemes
must be attached to another word
ly, ed, ing
bound morphemes
components of language:
CONTENT
meanings of words
2 kinds of meaning
semantics
literal meaning of words
denotative
subtle overtones. cool vs cool
connotative
components of language:
how words are used in different situations
social appropriateness
pragmatics
Approaches to the study of language acquisition:
language is learned, environmental influences, language can be taught, shaped, reinforced
behavioral approach
Approaches to the study of language acquisition:
born with physical equipment to understand and express language
rules of language part of biological endowment.
nativist (innateness) approach
Approaches to the study of language acquisition:
cognitive development prereq to language development.
hierarchial/ matural stages
cognitive approach
Approaches to the study of language acquisition:
left hemisphere controls language
right hemisphere controls rhythm, tonality, emotions
biological approach
stages of language development:
using words
context gives clue to meaning
parent feedback: repitition and expansion
21 months. 1st stage
stages of language development:
understood well.
single words/ short sentences
telegraphiz speech
28 months. 2nd stage
stages of language development:
increased length of utterances
complete sentence
more gramatical morphemes
more content
39 months. 3rd stage
stages of language development:
revision/ false starts
new experience provide new words- new language content
words acquired- frame for new experiences and learning
44 months. 4th stage
language disorder:
difficulties with attention and impulse control
attention defecit disorder
ADD
language disorder:
abnormal brain activity
impaired social interaction
disturbed or loss of language development
autism
language disorder:
IQ intelligence quotent less than 70 on standardized measure and significant deficits in daily functioning
Mental retardation
language disorder:
acquired due to brain damage
stroke, infection, tumor, seizures
normal intelligence
mute initially, then short simple sentences
difficulties w reading writing academics
Childhood Aphasia