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115 Cards in this Set

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What are the kcal/g of the nutrients?
Carbs: 4 kcal/g

Fat: 9 kcal/g

Protein: 4 kcal/g

Alcohol: 7 kcal/g

Fiber, Vitamins, Minerals, Water: 0 kcal/g
Recommended percent of carbs in diet?
50-60%
Recommended percent of fat in diet?
Less than or equal to 30%
Recommended percent of protein in diet?
10-20%
How much cholesterol should we get a day?
No more than 300 mg
How much fiber should we get a day?
20-35 g a day
What does fiber do for us?
Lowers serum cholesterol

Regulates bowels

Its a polysaccharide carb
What is the goal of weight loss?
To lose weight and maintain lean body mass by:

1) Providing adequate high quality protein
2) Exercise!!
Diets should...
1. Provide key nutrients

2. Reduce risk of disease

3. Include protein

4. Be fit for the person
What is the primary energy source for the body?
Carbohydrates
What are the three types of carbs?
Polysaccharides

Disaccharides

Monosaccharides
Polysaccharides
Ex. Starch, Glycogen, Fiber

(Fiber doesn't produce 4 kcal/g because we don't digest it)
Disaccharides
EX. Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose
Surcrose =
Glucose + Fructose

(Table Sugar)
Lactose =
Glucose + Galactose
Maltose =
Glucose + Glucose
Monosaccharides
Ex. Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
What is the primary source of carbs that we need?
Glucose

- Take it from the blood first
- Glycogen stores 2nd
Where is glycogen stored and how much?
In the liver and muscle cells

- 100 g of glycogen in the liver
- 300 - 400g in the skeletal muscles
Where is insulin released?
In the B-cells of the pancreas
Glucagon
Raises blood glucose levels

Released for a-cells in the pancreas

Stimulates release of stored glycogen to maintain blood glucose levels
What are the two types of fiber?
SOLUBLE FIBER
- oat bran, dried beans, some fruits (raisins, prunes)
- slows glucose absoprtion from digestive tract, and lowers blood cholesterol

INSOLUBLE FIBER
- wheat bran, most vegetables, whole grains
- makes you poop easier
How do good carbs promote weight loss?
- increase thermal effect of food
- low-fat diet is rich in plant food
- stored as glycogen when there's excess
- promotes fullness
How do good carbs promote disease prevention?
- Excellent source of vitamins and minerals
- Excellent source of fiber
- Phytochemicals (antioxidants, plant sterols, etc)
Thermal Effect of Food
Energy needed for digestion

- protein is hardest to digest and have the highest TEF

- complex carbs are 2nd to digest
Three ways fats present themselves?
1. TRIGLYCERIDES
- endogenous (eat) or exogenous (make)
- saturated
- polyunsaturated (omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids)
- monounsaturated

2. CHOLESTEROL
- produced and absorbed by the body

3. PHOSPHOLIPIDS
- cellular membranes
What are the different types of fats found in?
Cholesterol: in animal byproducts

Saturated: meat, animal, palm, and coconut oils

Poly: veg sources, corn oil, margarine

Mono: olive oil, canola oil
How much cholesterol does the body produce?
1000 - 1400 mg
How much do Americans eat a day versus the recommended?
Consume 400-600 mg a day versus the recommended 300 mg
Which lipoproteins deal with triglycerides?
Chylomicrons and Very-Low Density Liproproteins
Which types of Liproproteins deal with cholesterol?
LDL and HDLs
Which liproprotein is the main carrier of exogenous triclygerides?
Chylomicrons
Which liproprotein is the main carrier of endogenous triclygerides?
VLDLs
Which liproprotein deposits cholesterol in the artery walls?
LDL
Which liproprotein carries cholesterol to the liver?
HDL
What is a normal TC/HDL ration?
5.0 is normal

4.2 or lower = 1/2 the risk pf CAD

9.2 or higher = 2x the risk of CAD
What are the two types of amino acids?
Essential (9): Take in through diet
Non-Essnential (11): Body makes
What are incomplete vs complete proteins?
Incomplete: Plant; lacking 1 or more essential amino acids

Complete: Animal; have all essential amino acids
Protein supports growth of:
- growth and maintenance of body tissues
- Amino acids help to synthesize other important hormones, enzymes, and neurochemicals
Protein intake is based on what two things?
1. Based on age and weight
- adolescent: 1.0 g/kg
- adult: .8 g/kg
Ex. 220 lb person needs 80g/day

2. Based caloric intake
- 12% of caloric intake in person is eating enough to maintain weight
- if on a low calorie diet, might want to increase it to 20-25%
Vitamin A
Boosts immune system

15 mins of sunlight is suffcient
Vitamin C
Boosts immune system
Vitamin D
Helps with absorption of Vitamin C
Vitamin E
antioxidant helpful in protecting cell damage
Calcium
Bone development, muscle, and nerve support
Iron
formation of RBSs, transport functions
Potassium
Nerve and muscle function
Magnesium
Supports heart health and blood flow
See Recommended Diet
Page 5

{10, 10, 10% fats} 30% total

12% protein

{48% complex carbs, 10% refined and processed sugars} 58% carbs
Carbohydrates and exercise
Intake before exercise
- "carb loading" (do it ~ 3 days before)
- simple are good 1/2 hour before
- complex are good a few hours before

Intake during exercise
- glucose polymers
- liquid carbs

Intake after exercise
- replenishes glycogen stores
Protein Modification
Intake before exercise
- 1.3 to 1.6 g/kg of weight

Intake during exercise
- small amount mixed with carbs

Intake after exercise
- helps with muscle rebuilding

* protein helps stabilize BG levels
Carb Loading can lead to what condition?
Hypoglycemia
Three types of artificial sweeteners?
1. Cyclamates
- discovered in 1937, banned by FDA in 1977

2. Saccharine
- Discovered in 1879, banned by the FDA in 1977
- Ex: Sweet and Low

3. Aspartane
- Discovered in 1965, in 1996 FDA removed all restrictions
- Ex. Equal, NutraSweet
What was the health risj of cyclamates?
People developed brain tumors
What is the standard that sweeteners are compared to?
Sucrose
How many times sweeter than sucrose are fructose, maltose, and lactose?
Fructose: 2x

Maltose: 1/3

Lactose: 1/7
How many times sweeter than sucrose are cyclamates, saccharines, and aspartame?
cyclamates: 100x

saccharines: 500x

aspartame: 160x
What are the different kinds of fat replacers?
1. Carbohydrate based
- avg 4 kcal/g

2. Protein based
- avg 1-3 kcal/g

3. Fat based
- avg 5 kcal/g
What are the three dietary guidelines we follow?
1. RDA
2. Food Group Approaches (the pyramid)
3. Dietary Exchange List

(see ppt notes)
What are the fat soluable vitamins?
A, D, E and K
What are the water soluble vitamins?
C and B complex
What are the 8 key nutrients?
Vit A
Vit C
Calcium
Iron
Thiamin
Riboflavin
Niacin
Protein


Potassium
Magnesium
Vit D
Vit E
What did the Hassel Free Guide to a better diet do and when?
In 1979 they put in fats, sweets, and oils and regulated the serving size.
What are the two key points in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 6th edition?
1. Two chapters dedicated to obesity
- weight management (chp 3)
- physical activity (chp 4)

2. Two examples of eating approaches
- USDA Food Guide (my pyramid)
- DASH (dietary approach to stop hypertension)

** Note: these are not weight loss diets, but are more aimed at getting sufficient levels of nutrients and monitoring weight.
What does the DGA 2005 recommend as weight management guidelines?
1. To reverse the trend toward besity
- fewer fat calories (reduce sugar and alcohol)
- be more active
make wiser, more conscious choices

2. Use BMI and W(C) to approximate body fat

3. Attention to portion size
What do you have to be careful about when going off the pyramid?
It ranges from 1600-2800 calories per day, so you still have to watch your calories.
DGA physical activity guidelines
see ppt
Dietary Exchange List
- developed by American Diabetic Association and American Diabetic Association

- Foods are grouped (exchanges) based on carb, protein, and fat content, and therefore helps to present calories

- The most practical food group approach to follow for weight management

* easiest for the patients
Junk Food
Related to Eating Patterns
- portion size
- eat too fast
- when not hungry
- social situation
- what is available
- high caloric density
- low nutrient value
Value Marketing
- Provide more food for less money

- Spend a little extra to get more food

- Customer thinks its a good deal
Bundling
- Adding soft drink and fries

- Responsible for one of the largest increase in caloric content

- Customer thinks its a good deal
Nutritionism
Idea made popular by Michael Pollan

- ideology that the nutrients involved are what define our food, and that the individual nutrients are more important than the food itself

- only point of eating is to promote bodily health

- Pollan's belief is that this idea is flawed, and has produced misleading and maybe harmful effects

- "Imitation Rule" and "Nutrient Compromise"
Imitation Rule
- If you can change on ingredient in sour cream, have to call it "Imitation sour cream"

- Threw out rule in 1973 so now they can genetically engineer things and call it whatever
Nutritionism
- understand food based on it nutrients (food is the sum of its parts)

- nutrients are invisible, only scientists have seen them (need an expert to tell us how to eat)

- divides nutrients into good and evil (omega-6 will be next evil nutrient)

- eating is all about health (to improve or keep good)

Gary Taubes, Erik Schlosser
Who regulates the rules on organic food?
Organic Food Production Act (OFPA) in the late 1980's
Who handles the marketing of the term organic?
National Organic Program (NOP)
How do we evaluate weight loss diets?
1. Does the diet include the recommended number of servings (and portion size) from each food group?
2. Is there a sensible balance of protein, carbs, and fat?
3. Are there sources of key nutrients?
4. Is the diet low in calories?
5. Will the diet etablish good long term eating patterns?
6. Is exercise recommended?
7. Does the diet recommend 1-2 lbs weight loss/week?
8. Does the diet recommend consulting a doctor first?
What happens to metabolism and we lose weight?
It decreases
Every diet needs exercise except?
Very Low Calorie Diets
Diet Types
1. Low Calorie Diets (LCD)
- 1000 - 1600 cals

2. Very Low Calorie Diets (VLCD)
- ≤ 800 cals
- Optifast (Oprah Diets)
- Henry Ford Weight Management Diet

3. Isocaloric Diet
- 30% fat, 30% protein, 40% carbs
- same at each meal
Good Carbs
- can raise blood glucose
- harder to digest
- raise insulin slowly
- thermal effect of food
(whole grains, veggies, beans, legumes)
Bad Carbs
-cause rapid rise in blood glucose
- easy to digest
- fast insulin secretion
- insulin leads to weight gain by: storage of fat, and increased hunger
- thermal effect of food (white bread, white flour)
Glycemic Index (GI)
- Measured effect s of carbohydrates on blood sugar levels

- Ranking is given to food (0-100) which is compared to a reference food (usually white bread)
High Glycemic Index
Foods that breakdown quick and release glucose fast (which shoots up insulin fast)

Ex. White bread, baked potato
Low Glycemic Index
Foods that breakdown slow, release glucose slow

Ex. Most fruits, whole grains
Glycemic Index : Ranking
Low: 0-55

Moderate: 56-69

High: 70 or greater
What does fat do to absorption?
Slows it down
Limitations of Glycemic Index
- Way the food is prepared
(processed, cooked)

- Glycemic Load

- Insulin index (everyones is different)
How many grams of carbs do you use when determining GI?
25 or 50 g/carb of test food
At what intervals are blood samples taken?
1st Hour = every 15 minutes
2nd Hour = every 30 minutes
After blood samples are taken?
- Values are plotted and area under the curve (AUC) is calculated

- Test food response is compared to reference food
The average GI is calculated using how many people?
8-10 fasting and healthy people
How does viscosity of fiber influence GI?
more viscous lowers GI
How does sugar content influence GI?
more sugar raises GI
How does fat and protein content influence GI?
Fat slows gastric emptying and lowers GI
How does acid content influence GI?
Higher acidic means slower stomach emptying and lower GI
How does food processing influence GI?
It increases GI
How does cooking influence GI?
Cooking it longer makes it expand and easier to digest, so it raises the GI

Al dente pasta has a lower GI than over cooked pasta
Physical Entrapment influences GI how?
It decreases GI by making it harder to break down
In a healthy person, how long should it take for insulin to pull glucose out of the blood?
2 hours
What is glycemic load?
- Glycemic load is a measure of how much a given portion of carbs raises blood sugar and stimulates insulin release

- involves portion size
- indicates that bad carbs are not the correct term and that portion are what we need to pay attention to

- Reflects QUALITY and QUANTITY
What is the formula for glycemic load?
GL = GI/100 * CHO per serving

Ex. Apple
Dietary Exchange table = 15 g of carbs

GL = 40/100 * 15g = 6g
GI vs GL
GLYCEMIC INDEX
- ranks carbs based on their immediate blood glucose response
- = glycemic quality

GLYCEMIC LOAD
- helps predict blood glucose response to specific amount of specific carbohydrate food
- quality and quantity
Protein Rich Diets
High Protein / Low Carb

Ex. Atkins, Sugar Busters, South Beach Diet

- Premise that carbs promote insulin production and increased insulin leads to weight gain and increased risk of co-morbidities
High Protein Diets promote what?
Ketosis, which is a metabolic state where body burns fat for fuel instead of carbs

Ketones are now producing energy, instead of predominantly glucose, which are carbon fragments produce from the breakdown of fat
Atkins Diet
low carb diet developed by Dr. Atkins
Zone Diet
Dr. Barry Sears
Isocaloric

Claims that weight gain occurs from insulin imbalances can be corrected by:
- balancing protein and carbs at every meal and snack (.75 : 1.0)
- no more than 500 kcal/mean and 100 kcal/snack
- Will keep you in the zone
What are eicosanoids?
They help breakdown fat during beta oxidation
What are the three phases of the South Beach Diet
1. Phase I
- usually first two weeks
- eliminates sugars, processed carbs, fruits, some higher GI veggies
- eliminate the hunger cycle, like "kicking the habit" and initial weight loss

2. Phase II
- reintroduce "good carbs"
- lasts for as long as weight loss is needed

3. Phase III
- maintenance and no specific science, just live by the principles
Pritikin Diet
Orginially not a weight loss diet

For cardiac patients to reduce the incidence of further cardiac complications

Main focus on unprocessed whole foods straight from nature
- whole grains
- vegetables
- legumes
- fruits
- lean meat
Ornish Diet
Vegetarian Diet

Removing fats and cholesterol from diet and replacing with: legumes, whole grain, fruits, vegetables

Most heart healthy diet
Weight Watchers
Momentum Plan - based on points formula

- points are assigned to foods based on calories, fat, and fiber content of food
- members get certain amount of points assigned per day based on weight, height, activity level, and age
- can add points with more exercise
- encourage choice and decrease restriction
Nutrisystem
(similar to weight watchers)

- starts with meals prepared for you
- calims that foods help to control hunger, glycemic control, nutrient balances, good carbs, and good fats
Which diet showed the most weight loss and maintenance?
Atkins Diet because of the large initial weight loss
Diet Pills
Like Fen-Phen and Alli

- harmful side effects
- quick fix mentality
- target only one portion of weight loss (hunger control, brain function, fat burning, etc)