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62 Cards in this Set

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What is acid disposition?
Caused by sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides being released into the environment.
ex. coal burning power plans and motor vehicles.
Explain the effects of acid rain.
-leach nutrients in the ground
-kill nitrogen-fixing microorganisms that nourish plants
-kill fish
-release toxic metals
What are acid rain controls?
-fuel switching
-coal washing
-scrubbers
-fluidized bed combustion
-reduced consumption of electricity
Describe the "greenhouse effect".
Sun's rays strike the earth and some are converted to infrared radiation that is transmitted back into outer space.
Some of the infrared is absorbed by greenhouse gases insulating the earth.
More accumulations of greenhouse gases delays the release of infrared to outer space, leading to global warming.
What are the greenhouse gases?
-carbon dioxide
-water vapor
-methane
-nitrous oxide
-cfc's
What is the role of CO2 in the greenhouse effect?
-moderates the earths temperature
-without CO2 the earths temperature would be about 90 degrees cooler.
-increasing levels of CO2 will cause global warming
Describe the major impacts of global warming.
-diminishing crop yields
-loss of biodiversity
-rising sea levels
-human illness
What was the Kyoto Protocol?
In 1997, 161 nations met to discuss global warming. Required developed countries to cut greenhouse gas emissions >5%, exempted developing countries. Then in 2001, president Bush reversed his commitment to reducing emissions.
Are there feasible alternatives to address the global warming concerns? what are they?
Reduce CO2 emissions, walk or ride a bike, use public transit instead of driving, recycle.
What is the ozone layer and where is it?
Is this good ozone or bad ozone?
The ozone is generated in the stratosphere by the action of UV on O2. Amounts of ozone vary depending on location and season of the year. Most UV radiation is absorbed by the ozone layer. The existence of the ozone layer is of great biological significance.
Explain the effects of destruction of ozone.
-as CFC's are released into the sky, chlorine and bromine atoms convert ozone into oxygen, thus reducing the amount of ozone in the atmosphere
- then more UV penetrates the earth
- causes health effects, damages crops, and causes more smog
What are UV health effects?
-skin cancer
-damage immune system
-cataracts and eye blindness
Discuss the problem with the "hole in the sky".
The ozone layer is being destroyed by CFC's but Montreal Protocol is stabilizing it.
What was the Policy Response-Montreal Protocol?
The ozone layer being destroyed was a huge health threat, so it was aimed at controlling the chemicals responsible for the ozone layer depletion. Mostly CFC reduction, halt CFC's entirely by 1999.
What are air pollutants?
Substances in the atmosphere that have harmful effects on the environment and on animals, plants, and microbes.
What is the difference between primary and secondary pollutants?
Primary pollutants are released in a harmful form while secondary pollutants become hazardous after reactions in the air.
Which source of air pollution is easiest to control?
Particulates.
-phase out open burning refuse
-reduce particulates from industrial stacks to "no visible emissions"
-enforcement through permits
What is an inversion?
Warm air gets sandwiched between cold air, which prevents the warm air form rising and causing pollutants to stay near the ground.
Describe the clean air act of 1970 and the amendments in 1990.
Foundation of air pollution control efforts in the US, administered by the EPA. Calls for identifying the most widespread pollutants by setting ambient air standards.
What are ambient air standards?
Ambient air standards protect human health (primary) and protect materials, crops, climate, visibility, and personal comfort (secondary).
What are two kinds of smog?
Industrial smog- develops in urban areas.
Photochemical smog- mainly over cities, caused by chemical reactions in the sunlight.
List some of the major air pollutants.
-suspended particles
-VOC's
-carbon monoxide
-sulfur and nitrogen oxides
-ozone and other photochemical oxidants
-lead, mercury, and other heavy metals
-air toxics and radon
What are the major sources of air pollutants in the US?
-sulfur dioxide from burning fuel
-particulate matter sources (burning fuels, dust from ag. and construction and factory emissions)
-volatile organic compounds, primarily from factory emissions and transportation
-nitrogen oxides, from fuel burning and transportation
-carbon monoxide from transportation
-
Describe the effects of air pollutants on humans.
-chronic
-acute
Describe effects of air pollutants on the environment.
-plants can be effected by gaseous air pollutants, the ozone player and photochemical oxidants
-effect materials and aesthetics, walls windows, exposed surfaces and color change and material degradation
What are pollution credits, there benefits and concerns?
An industry is allowed to pollute so much based on past performance and if they pollute less they get a credit that can be sold to another company. The benefit is that companies try to pollute less since the credit can be sold, but the concerns are that the pollution will just be worse in some areas.
Describe the progress on limiting air pollution from motor vehicles, and what is the main reason for the recent lack of progress.
Catalytic converters on motor vehicles and mass transit or a bike. The main reason for lack of progress is Bush.
What are some of the best ways to prevent air pollution?
-cut fossil fuel use
-remove sulfur from coal
-covert coal to liquid fuel
-use more alternate energy sources
-use mass transit or bike
Describe the problems with indoor air pollutants.
Air inside often contains more pollution than outdoor air. Sources of indoor pollution are common household products like cigarettes, air fresheners, disinfectants, fuel powered heaters and moldy walls.
What is radon?
Natural breakdown of uranium in soil, rock, and water.
It is odorless, invisible, and tasteless.
What are radon health risks?
Radon has been linked with lung cancer.
What is asbestos?
Collective term for a group of six fibrous silicate minerals found almost worldwide.
Describe asbestos abatement methods and which is now considered best.
-encapsulation (best method)
-enclosure
-removal
Lead as a toxic hazard, and what are some sources of lead exposure in the home?
Lead interferes with blood cell formation, kidney damage, sterility, cause miscarriage, birth defects, cause injury to the central nervous system.
Lead is exposed in the home by glazed pottery, drinking water, house paint, and lead pipes and solder.
What are some emerging problems with game animals?
-more game animals are being killed on the road than by hunters
-in urbanized areas
-some animals have no predators but hunters
-cities have crossed the the line into the wild habitat and we can get diseases
Describe the relationship between human and nonhuman populations.
As the number of people increase the number of species left in the world decrease.
What is an endangered species?
A species that is in imminent danger of being extinct.
What is a threatened species?
A species judged to be in jeopardy, but not on the brink of extinction.
What are the three major causes for extinction of animal species?
-species intrusion (39%)
-hunting (23%)
-habitat destruction (36%)
Habitat destruction is the most important factor for species destruction due to what four problems?
-conversion: change from natural, cultivated, residential, or commercial
-fragmentation: remaining wild areas to small
-simplification: "managing" forests by removing dead trees, straiting steams
-population of habitat
What was the Lacey Act of 1900?
Basically prohibited the killing, selling, exporting, and importing of any prohibited species.
ex. Can't kill elephants for their ivory tusks.
Describe the endangered species act of 1973.
Endangered species must be put on a list and they are illegal to hunt and kill.
What is the role of the US Fish and Wildlife Service in protecting endangered species?
-list endangered or threatened species
-protect the habitat of endangered species
-certain species can not be hunted, killed, collected, or injured in the US
What is the role of the National Marine Fisheries Service?
Identifies and list endangered and threatened ocean species.
What is the value of wild species?
-Utilitarian (scientific value, agriculture, recreation, other commercial value)

-Intrinsic (wild species have value in their own right)
What was CITES?
A governing body that regulates international trade in and shipment of specified animal and plant products.
-prohibits trade with products of endangered species and list 675 species that can not be traded live or as wildlife products
What is a renewable resource?
Resource that replenish them selfs despite certain aspects being taken.
Conservation
Mange or regulate use so that it doesn't not exceed the capacity of the species or system to renew itself.
Preservation
Ensure the continuity of a species or system regardless of their potential utility.
What is the Maximum Sustainable Yield?
The highest possible use that the system can match its own rate of replacement or maintenance.
Restoration
Restoring natural systems that have been lost or damaged.
The problem with aquatic wetlands.
They are in danger from human activities.
What is the commercial and ecological importance of forests?
-lumber for houses
-biomass for fuel
-pulp for paper
(all worth about 300$ billion per year)
What is the effect of road building on tropical rainforests?
Provides access to previously unavailable forests, thus encouraging population migration and expansion.
What is the status of forests resources and management in the US?
Forests:
-cover 1/3 of the lower 48 states
-provide habitats for more than 80% of the country's wildlife
-most are threatened
-old growth forests have nearly disappeared
What is the role of the US forest service?
Manage 155 national forests.
What reforms are needed for federal forests?
-stop building roads in national forests
-reduce tree harvesting and wasting wood
-making sustaining biodiversity and ecological integrity the first priority of national forestry management
What are some solutions for a sustainable forestry?
-recycle paper to reduce the harvest of pulp-wood trees
-grow more timber on long rotations
-using road building and logging methods that minimize soil erosion and compaction
What is the status of ocean ecosystems?
-coral reefs, mangroves, and global fisheries are being endangered
-whales are still being hunted for research and many are endangered or threatened
What is the importance of coral reefs and mangrove trees?
-high biodiversity
-protect coastlines from storms and high waves
-nurseries for many fish species
What is a debt. for nature swap?
Developing countries that are in debt. agree to protect land instead of paying the money back. (1$ trillion dollars in loan)
Explain the difference between "Wise Use" and "Private Trust".
"Wise Use" is an environmental backlash that minimizes the extent of problems and encourages the exploitation of resources.

Trust-purchase or acquire land to remove it from use.