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46 Cards in this Set

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ACID DEPOSITION
Acid Rain
Kills fish
From sulfuric and nitric gases
From low burning plans and motor vehicles
pH scale
0=acid to 14=base
pH 7=neutral
EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN
Leach nutriends in the ground
kill nitrogen-fixing microorganisms that nourish plants
Kill fish
Release toxic metals
Acid rain controlds
fueling switching
coal washing
scrubbers
fluidized bed combustion
reduced consumption of electricity
Wet scrubber
cleans air by exhaust smoke coming out of chimney. As smoke goes up-liquid spray captures particles and gases so air gets cleaner
Bets ways to reduce acid rain
Use less electricity
What do humans do that hurts earth's atmosphere
releases greenhouse gases
GREENHOUSE EFFECT
sun's rays strike earth & some are converted to infrared radiation that is transmitted back into outer space
Some of the infrared is absorbed by greenhouse gases insulating the earth
More accumulations of greenhouse gases delays the release of infrared to outer space leading to global warming
WHAT ARE GREENHOUSE GASES
~CO2 (biggest prob)(64%)
~Water Vapor
~Methane
~Nitrous Oxide
~CFC's
What causes CO2 to get into atmosphere?
increased use of coal, oil & gas to power worlds factories and vehicles
ACID DEPOSITION
Acid Rain
Kills fish
From sulfuric and nitric gases
From low burning plans and motor vehicles
pH scale
0=acid to 14=base
pH 7=neutral
EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN
Leach nutriends in the ground
kill nitrogen-fixing microorganisms that nourish plants
Kill fish
Release toxic metals
Acid rain controlds
fueling switching
coal washing
scrubbers
fluidized bed combustion
reduced consumption of electricity
Wet scrubber
cleans air by exhaust smoke coming out of chimney. As smoke goes up-liquid spray captures particles and gases so air gets cleaner
Bets ways to reduce acid rain
Use less electricity
What do humans do that hurts earth's atmosphere
releases greenhouse gases
GREENHOUSE EFFECT
sun's rays strike earth & some are converted to infrared radiation that is transmitted back into outer space
Some of the infrared is absorbed by greenhouse gases insulating the earth
More accumulations of greenhouse gases delays the release of infrared to outer space leading to global warming
WHAT ARE GREENHOUSE GASES
~CO2 (biggest prob)(64%)
~Water Vapor
~Methane
~Nitrous Oxide
~CFC's
What causes CO2 to get into atmosphere?
increased use of coal, oil & gas to power worlds factories and vehicles
Breakdown of worldwide CO2 emissions
North America ~28%
ROLE OF C02 IN GREENHOUSE EFFECT
Moderates earth's temp
If we didn't have CO2 on earth, it would be 90 degrees cooler
Methane's effect
19% of global warming
originates fro rice cultivating and microbial activity in the intestines of cattle and termites
CFC's role as a greenhouse gas
Most destructive of ozone layer.
11% of global warming
IMPACTS OF GLOBAL WARMING
Diminishes crop yield
~Loss of biodiversity
~Rising sea levels
~Human illness/death
Why diminishing crop yields?
Climate change (hotter, drier)
Why a loss of biodiversity?
Stress on natural ecosystem and some animals have a narrow tolerance (polar bears and how can only live in cold weather like Antarctica)
How global warming effects human illness
~Mosquitos
~Rising sea levels
~Death from heart attack and stroke
~Heat waves
Relation btwn warming based on estimates of energy use
No change ~ 1 degree by 2100
Increase ~ 3 degrees
Large acceleration ~ 5-9 degrees
KYOTO ACCORD
~In 1997, 161 nations met to talk about global warming
~Developed, stop emitting green house by 5% and Developing countries were exempt.
CONSENSUS OF GLOBAL WARMING
That greenhouse effect is real and humans are the ones causing it. It will take centuries to reduce. 90% chance that in mid 21st century, sea ice will reduce, winters will be warmer and sea level will rise
Us being slow to issue address of global warming
It costs too much
How can you reduce COx emission?
Bike, walk, transit, recycle
OZONE LAYER
Generated by stratosphere by action of UV on O2.
Amounts of ozone vary depending on season and location
Most UV is absorbed by ozone layer
Existence is of great biological significance
EFFECTS OF DESTRUCTION OF OZONE
As CFC's released, reduces ozone. Allows UV rays to get in Earth. Causes health effects, damages crops and causes smog.
Types of CFC's
1) Industrial Solvents (cleaning products)
2) Cars, refrigeration
3) Aerosals, foam production, sterilization
HEALTH EFFECTS FROM UV RAYS
Skin cancer, eye damage (blindness), immune system damage, early aging of skin
HOLE IN THE SKY
Direct link between ozone destruction and CFCs
Ozone loss conitnues but Montreal Protocoal stabilized
MONTREAL-PROTOCOL
Ozone depletion presesnt major threat to life on earth. Controlls chemicals most responsible for ozone depletion (mostly CFC, which was haulted in 1999)
Human impact on atmosphere
Intro of pollutant gases and particles in significant amounts in atmosphere
Changes in the concentrations of natural atmospheric components
AIR POLLUTANTS
Substances in the atmosphere that have harmful effects on the environment, animals, plants, microbes, and humans
3 types of pollutants
~volcano
~Smoke stacks of factories (stationary, easiest to control)
~Mobile sources: cars and trucks
INVERSION
When warm air is sandwiched between 2 cold airs. Accumulates pollution
2 TYPES OF SMOG
1) Industrial ~ greyish
2) Photochemical ~ brownish, LA, from cars
CLEAN AIR ACT OF 1970
Administered by EPA. Foundation to control air pollution in US. Calls for identifying most . Max. levels of air pollution to protect env. and health
MAJOR AIR POLLUTANTS
~PM2.5~worst, causes lung cancer & PM10
~VOC's
CO
Sulfur oxide
nitrogen oxides
Lead and other heavy metals
Air toxics and radon