Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/79

Click to flip

79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List 3 primary retroperitoneal structures.
1. Kidneys
2. Suprarenal glands
3.. Ureters
List 4 secondary retroperitoneal structures.
1. Duodenum (except first part, which is in the hepatoduodenal L)
2. Ascending colon
3. Descending colon
4. Pancreas (except tail which is in the Lienorenal L).
Name 3 paired visceral branches of the abdominal aorta.

In which vascular plane do these run?
1. Suprarenal A
2. Renal A
3. Testicular/ovarian A

These run in the LATERAL vascular plane
Name 3 paired parietal (segmental) branches of the abdominal aorta.
1. Inferior phrenic A
2. Subcostal A
3. Lumbar AA
Which paired visceral branches of the abdominal aorta are at the L1 vertebral level?

Which one is at the L2 level?
L1 level:
1. Suprarenal A
2. Renal A

L2 level:
Gonadal (testicular/ovarian) A
The Right Gonadal V branches from where?
Inferior vena cava
The Left Gonadal V branches from where?
Left Renal V
The Right Suprarenal V drains into which vein?
Inferior vena cava
The Left Suprarenal V drains into which vein?
Left Renal V
What illness are patients likely to suffer from if they do not have a spleen?
Pneumonia
Which 5 organs is the spleen closely associated with?
1. Diaphragm
2. Stomach (gastric area on superior border of spleen)
3. Kidney (renal area on anterior border of spleen)
4. Colon (colic area on inferior/posterior border of spleen)
5. Pancreas (tail inserts into Lienorenal L)
T or F.

The spleen is an intraperitoneal organ.
TRUE!
A splenic infarction can result in what sign?
Hiccups!
_______ renal fascia blends w/ coverings of the renal vessels

________ renal fascia blends with the psoas fascia
Anterior renal fascia blends with coverings of the renal vessels

Posterior renal fascia blends with the psoas fascia
The kidneys are closely positioned near which ribs?
Ribs 11 and 12
Which structures are found in the hilum of the kidney?
1. Renal A
2. Renal V
3. Ureter
Non-distensible part of the bladder wall b/w the entrance of the ureters and the exit of the urethra.
Trigone
The apex of the bladder is _________ (anterior/posterior) and the base of the bladder is _______ (anterior/posterior)
Apex = anterior
Base = posterior

(neck = inferior)
Ureteral openings are found at the _______ of the trigone.
TOP of the trigone.
The internal sphincter of the bladder is controlled by what type of nerve fibers?
Sympathetic fibers
The detrusor muscle of the bladder is controlled by what kind of nerve fibers?
Parasympathetic nerve fibers.
The "voluntary" sphincter in the bladder is controlled by what type of nerve fibers?
Somatic nerve fibers
(through the Pudendal nerve)
Name the most superficial layer of the suprarenal gland and what hormone these cells secrete.
Zona glomerulosa (cortex)
Produce/secrete mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
Which part of the suprarenal cortex secretes glucocorticoids (cortisol)?
Zona fasiculata
Which cells produce and secrete aldosterone?
Zona glomerulosa cells in the cortex of the adrenal medulla.
Which cells of the suprarenal glands produce/secrete sex steroids (androgens)?
Zona reticularis
(innermost layer of the suprarenal gland cortex)
Which part of the suprarenal glands producee catecholamines (Epinephrine and Norepinephrine)?
Medulla
Superior suprarenal arteries branch from...?

Middle suprarenal arteries branch from...?

Inferior suprarenal arteries branch from..?
Superior suprarenal A = Inferior Phrenic A

Middle suprarenal A = aorta

Inferior suprarenal A = Renal A
What type of nerve fibers travel to the suprarenal gland?
Greater splanchnic nerves (preganglionic sympathetic fibers) travel to the suprarenal gland WITHOUT synapsing.
The ventral primary rami of T12 is also known as?
Subcostal N
The ventral primary rami of L1 give rise to which 2 abdominal nerves?
1. Iliohypogastric
2. Ilioinguinal.
Ventral primary rami of L2-3 give rise to which nerve?
Lateral femoral cutaneous N
Ventral primary rami of L2-4 give rise to which nerves?
1. Femoral N
2. Obturator N
Ventral primary rami of L1-2 give rise to which nerve?
Genitofemoral N
Ventral primary rami of L4-5 give rise to which nerve?
Lumbosacral trunk
Name the 3 openings of the diaphragm.
1. IVC foramen (T8)
2. Esophageal hiatus (T10)
3. Aortic hiatus (T12)
The medial arcuate ligament is for which muscle?
Psoas major M
The superior mesenteric A passes over which major vein?
Left renal vein
Renal veins are _______(anterior/posterior) to renal arteries.
Anterior
Bleeding into the tough capsule of the kidney results in...?
Intrarenal hematoma
Which kidney lies a little lower than the other?
The RIGHT kidney lies a little lower than the left b/c of the large size of the right lobe of the liver.
The right kidney usually is related to rib ______ posteriorly, whereas the left kidney is related to ribs _______ posteriorly.
Right kidney = Rib 12
(lies a bit lower than left)

Left kidney = Ribs 11, 12
What hormone do JG cells in the kidney produce?
Renin
List the components of a nephron.
1. Renal corpuscle (glomerulus surrounded by Bowman's capsule)
2. Proximal convoluted tubule
3. Henle's loop
4. Distal convoluted tubule
Renal corpuscles and proximal and distal convoluted tubules can be found in which part of the kidney?
Cortex
Henle's loops and collecting tubules can be found in which part of the kidney?
Medulla
The apex of the renal pyramid is known as:
Renal papilla
Which structures within the kidney receive urine from the collecting tubules?

What do these empty into?
Minor calyces receive urine and then empty into major calyces (which in turn empty into the renal pelvis).
Which steroid hormone controls electrolyte (Na+, K+, etc.) and water balance?
Aldosterone
(produced by the outer part of the adrenal cortex = zona glomerulosa)
Which steroid hormone controls glucose regulation and suppresses immune response?
Glucocorticoids (mainly cortisol)
(produced by middle part of adrenal cortex = zona fasciculata)
Which steroid hormone controls sexual development (maleness)?
Androgen
(produced by inner part of adrenal cortex = zona reticularis)
The kidney and suprarenal cortex develop from _________, but the suprarenal medulla develops from _______.
kidney and suprarenal cortex => MESODERM

suprarenal medulla => NEURAL CREST CELLS
The allantois degenerates and forms a fibrous cord in the adult called the _______.
Urachus.
At what vertebral level does the aorta pass through the aortic hiatus?
At what level does it bifurcate into the right and left common iliac arteries?
Aortic hiatus = T12.

Bifurcation = L4
Do the renal arteries branch inferiorly or superiorly to the superior mesenteric artery?
The renal arteries branch INFERIORLY to the superior mesenteric A
The testicular/ovarian arteries run laterally to which abdominal muscle?
Psoas major M.
Which vein runs posterior to the Superior mesenteric A and anterior to the abdominal aorta?
Left Renal V
What is the lower, dilated end of the thoracic duct that is formed by the intestinal and lumbar lymph trunks?
Cisterna chyli
The genitofemoral N emerges on the front of which muscle?
Psoas major M.
Which nerve passes in front of the Quadratus lumborum and then penetrates the transversus abdominis M to run between it and the internal abdominal oblique M?
Subcostal N

(innervates external oblique, internal oblique, transverse, rectus abdominis, and pyramidalis MM).
The testicular/ovarian arteries run laterally to which abdominal muscle?
Psoas major M.
Which vein runs posterior to the Superior mesenteric A and anterior to the abdominal aorta?
Left Renal V
What is the lower, dilated end of the thoracic duct that is formed by the intestinal and lumbar lymph trunks?
Cisterna chyli
The genitofemoral N emerges on the front of which muscle?
Psoas major M.
Which nerve passes in front of the Quadratus lumborum and then penetrates the transversus abdominis M to run between it and the internal abdominal oblique M?

This nerve innervates the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall.
Subcostal N

(innervates external oblique, internal oblique, transverse, rectus abdominis, and pyramidalis MM).
Which nerve accompanies the spermatic cord or the round ligament of the uterus, continues through the inguinal canal, and emerges through the superficial inguinal ring?
Ilioinguinal N (L1)
Which 3 nerves pierce the transverse abdominal muscle and then run between this muscle and the internal oblique M?
1. Subcostal N (T12)
2. Iliohypogastric N (L1)
3. Ilioinguinal N (L1)
Which nerve emerges from the lateral side of the Psoas muscle and runs in front of the iliacus and behind the inguinal ligament?
Lateral femoral cutaneous N (L2-L3)

(innervates the skin of the anterior and lateral thigh)
List the 4 collateral (prevertebral) ganglia.
Collateral ganglia:
1. Celiac
2. Superior mesenteric
3. Aorticorenal

(formed by cell bodies of the postganglionic sympathetic fibers)
4. Inferior mesenteric
What types of nerve fibers are received by collateral (prevertebral) ganglia?
RPreganglionic sympatetic fibers by way of the greater, lesser, and least splanchnic NN.
The myenteric plexus is located chiefly between which 2 layers of the intestine?
Between longitudinal and circular muscle layers
The submucosal plexus is located in which layer of the intestine?
Submucosa
How does the diaphragm attach to the lumbar vertebrae?
Through the right and left crura
(the right crus is longer than the left)
The two crura of the diaphragm join in the midline to form the _________ in front of the aortic hiatus.
Median arcuate ligament.
Which structures pass through the aortic hiatus?
1. Aorta
2. Azygous vein
3. Thoracic duct
What passes through the caval hiatus in the central tendon of the diaphragm?
1. Inferior vena cava
2. Branches of the right phrenic N
What passes through the esophageal hiatus?
1. Esophagus
2. Anterior vagal trunk
3. Posterior vagal trunks
4. Esophageal AA, VV
List 6 functions of the kidneys.
1. Filter blood
2. pH balance
3. Salt and water
4. Blood pressure regulation
5. urine production
6. Secretes erythropoitein for RBC development
What type of fat lies just outside the renal fascia?

What type of fat lies between the renal capsule and the renal fascia?
Outside renal fascia = Perarenal fat
Between renal capsule and renal fascia = Perirenal fat