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50 Cards in this Set

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Which blood vessels are transmitted by the greater omentum?
R and L gastroepiploic AA
The right gastroepiploic A branches from where?
Gastroduodenal A
The left gastroepiploic A branches from where?
Splenic A
The right gastric A branches from where?
Proper hepatic A
What structure "plugs the hernal neck" to prevent coils of small intestine from protruding, and also prevents the diffusion of peritonitis?
Greater omentum
The mesentery proper extends from the ________ junction to the ________ junction.

How long is the root?
How long is the edge?
Duodenojejunal junction to the ileocecal junction.

Root = 6 inches long
Edge = 20 feet
The mesentery proper contains which arteries?
Superior mesenteric A and its branches

(mesentery proper contains small intestine)
Which artery can be found in the transverse mesocolon?
Middle colic A and branches
Which ligament attaches the liver to the anterior abdominal wall and the diaphragm?
Falciform ligament
What forms the anatomical border between the right and left lobes of the liver?
Falciform ligament
Sickle shaped, double-layer peritoneum.
Falciform ligament.
Name the fibrous remnant of the Left umbilical V that is found at the free edge of the Falciform ligament.
Round ligament of liver
(Ligamentum teres)
Which ligaments are found at the right and left edges of the coronary ligament?
Right and left triangular ligaments.
The paraumbilical V communicates between which vessels?

In which ligament is this vein found?
Communicates between the L branch of the portal V and radicles of the epigastric VV.

Found in the falciform ligament--virtually closed, but they dilate in the case of portal hypertension.
Name the communication between the greater and lesser sacs.
Epiploic foramen
What structure forms the posterior wall of the epiploic foramen?
Inferior vena cava
Potential space b/w parietal and visceral peritoneum
Peritoneal space
Name the 3 recesses of the lesser sac.
1. Superior recess (behind liver)
2. Inferior recess
3. Splenic/left recess
The splenic A,V and the body and tail of the pancreas are found within which ligament?
Lienorenal (splenorenal) Ligament
Short gastric vessels can be found within which ligament?
Gastrolienal ligament
Name 9 retroperitoneal structures.
1. Duodenum (except 1st part--hepatoduodenal L)
2. Ascending colon
3. Descending colon
4. Pancreas (except tail--Lienorenal L)
5. Kidneys
6. Suprarenal glands
7. Ureters
8. Aorta
9. IVC
What causes Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)?
Lower esophageal sphincter dysfunction and hiatal hernia, causing reflux of stomach contents.
Which disease has symptoms of heart burn or acid indigestion, painful swallowing, burping, and feeling of fullness in the chest.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease.
What is a hiatal hernia?

What causes it?
Herniaton of a part of the stomach through the esophageal hiatus into the thoracic cavity.

Caused by large hiatus, weakened lower esophageal sphincter, or by an increased pressure in the abdomen.
What features of the stomach guide fluid from the lesser curvature to the pyloric area?
Rugae (longitudinal ridges).
What can cause erosion of the mucosa, resulting in a peptic ulcer?
1. Heliobacter pylori
2. Acid and pepsin
3. Stress and anxiety
Where do peptic ulcers most commonly occur?
1. Pyloric region of the stomach (gastric ulcer)
2. First part of the duodenum (duodenal ulcer)
If a perforation in the stomach exists, contents will flow into what space?

What structures are at risk for erosion?
Lesser sac

Can erode the pancreas and Splenic A.
Erosion of the stomach mucosa without perforation will trigger which type of pain fibers?

Erosion WITH perforation will trigger which pain fibers?
without perforation = VISCERAL/autonomic pain fibers (dull pain)

with perforation = SOMATIC pain fibers (sharp, terrible pain).
What area of the liver is found between the coronary ligaments?
Bare area
(directly contacts diahragm)
Which lobe of the liver is found between the IVC and the ligamentum venosum?

Which lobe is found between the gall bladder and the round ligament?
Caudate lobe (superior)

Quadrate lober (inferior)
Which structures enter the porta hepatis?
1. Common bile duct
2. Proper hepatic A and branches
3. Hepatic portal V
List 8 functions of the liver.
1. Production of bile (emulsify fats)
2. Detoxification (chemicals and drugs)
3. Storage of carbohydrates as glycogen and lipids as triglycerides
4. Protein synthesis (prothrombin, fibrinogen, albumin, and lipoproteins)
5. Production of heparin
6. Bile pigments (bilirubin and biliverdin)
7. Storage of vitamins, iron and copper
8. Manufacture of RBCs in fetus
What causes liver cirrhosis?

What does liver cirrhosis cause?
Liver cells are destroyed and replaced by fibrous tissues that surround blood vessels, impeding circulation and causing portal hypertension.
Esophageal varices, spider nevi, hemorrhoids, caput medusae, ascites, and splenomegaly are all symptoms of which condition?
Portal hypertension
Alcohol abuse, hepatitis B,C,D and, and ingestion of poisons can all cause what condition?
liver cirrhosis/portal hypertension.
The fundus of the gallbladder is in contact with which organ?

The body of the gallbladder is in contact with which organ?
fundus --> Transverse colon

body --> duodenum
Which 2 major arteries supply the pancreas?
1. Celiac trunk--> Superior pancreaticoduodenal AA, Dorsal pancreatic AA
2. Superior mesenteric branches --> Inferior pancreaticoduodenal AA
Which two ducts join to form the common bile duct?
Common hepatic and cystic ducts
List 3 components of gall stones.
1. Cholesterol crystals
2. Bile pigment
3. Calcium
Gallstones commonly occur in what type of patients?
Fat, fertile, females over forty-years old.
Gallstones in the fundus of the gallbladder may ulcerate through the wall of the FUNDUS of the gallbladder into which organ?

Or stones can ulcerate through the wall of the BODY of the gall bladder into which organ?
Through fundus --> Transverse colon
(stones will then pass naturally to the rectum)

Through body --> duodenum
(stones by get held up at the ileocecal junction, producing an INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION)
Gall stones that obstruct the bile duct will lead to....?
Jaundice
(bile flow obstructed to duodenum)
Gall stones that obstruct the hepatopancreatic ampulla may result in...?
Aseptic or noninfections PANCREATITIS.
An inflammation of the gallbladder caused by obstruction of the cystic duct by gallstones.
Cholecystitis
A sudden inflammation of the gallbladder caused by impacted gallstones in the gallbladder, which obstruct the cystic duct.
Acute cholecystitis
Superior border of spleen: ______
area
Anterior end or border of spleen: ______ area
Inferior border of spleen: ______ renal area.
Superior = gastric area
Anterior = colic area
Inferior = renal area
Which organ filters blood, stores blood and platelets, and produces lymphocytes and antibodies?
SPLEEN
Which organ has hematopoietic functions early in life and later destroys aged RBCs?
SPLEEN
Name the branches of the celiac trunk.
1. Left gastric A
2. Splenic A
3. Common hepatic A