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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Changes with toxic exposure: Growth defects, permanent, genetic material
Changes with toxic exposure: growth defects, temporary, tissue anomolies
Physiological effects: NOEL(no observable effects), relatively minor
Physiological effects: serios, permanent, death
The science of poisons, their effects, antidotes, and detection.
Eyes(Cataracts can develop)
Skin(accelerated aging)
Immune system (disease)
Crops(lower yields)
Marine life (phytoplankton)
Potential effects of UV light
Carbon dioxide, CFC's, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone and other trace gases are:
greenhouse gases
What light is stopped by greenhouse gases?
Infrared light
Dose-Response relationship, duration of exposure, tolerance, classes of toxic substances are characteristics of:
Toxic Agents
The amount of the material+Length of the exposure+How often the exposure occurs=
Safe human dose equals
(THD 0.0 (MG/KG/DAY)*70kG)/SF
Arbitrarily established seperation between the highest level of a chemical that produces no adverse effect in any animal species and the level of exposure estimated to be safe in humans
Margin of Safety
threshold/effective dose
Used by pharmacologist where the lethal dose (LD) is over the effective dose(ED)
Therapeutic Index
Durations of exposure
Acute short 24 hrs
Subacute short intermediate 24 hrs - 1month
Subchronic long intermediate 1 month- 3 months
Chronic long 3 months- years
A process by whereby exposure to sub-toxic doses of a chemical renders a person tolerant to subsequent doses of the chemical in quantities that would be harmful to non-adapted individuals.
Dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, gases-liquids and solids are
Classes of toxic substances
A quantitative approach to the behavior of a poison or chemical in the body. Pertaining to a drug in the body.
Reversible, local, and NOEL is skin absorption
Water Souble
Irreversible, systemic, permanent is skin absorption
Lipid Soluble
Mechanism of clearance from the pulmonary system
Ciliary Mucus Transport, Phagocytosis via lung marcophage, absorption, exhalation
Nasopharynegeal Region size:
5 microns or larger
Trachaobronchiolar Region size:
2 microns- 5 microns
Alveolar Region size:
1 micron and below
Ultaviolet light, humidity, noise, and radiation are:
Effects of the fetus, deficits in learning ability, in adults high blood pressure, heart attack are effects of:
A substance, usually a protein that the body reconizes as foreign and that can evoke an immune response
Any microrganism capable of producing disease
What toxicologist gives the perameters, describes testing methods
What toxicologist takes the action and finds why things bind so tightly
What toxicologist does tissue sampling to see what poison it is?
What toxicologist does specifically deals with antidotes?
What toxicologist is concerned with the harmful effects of chemicals by man in the total ecological system?
What toxicologist is involved with investigative research of chemicals utilized and produced by industry?
Sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxidem nitrogen dioxidem particulates, hydrocarbons, ozone are sources and effects of:
Air Pollutants
U.S. Environmental protection agency creates standards for:
Drinking Water
Water is:
Purified in water treatment plants by fluoridation.
Light stopped by greenhouse gases is
Infrared light
Light let through greenhouse gases is
visible light
What is the antidote for carbon monoxide
A pesticide banned in the U.S. is:
Industrial chemical used as an insulator in electrical transformers and linked to certain human cancers:
Increased heart beat, birth defects, and cancers are effects of:
Air pollution
Major source of carbon monoxide pollution is:
Motor vehicle exhaust
Chemicals used in products that destroy the ozone layer are:
A disease that is able to be passed on is:
A communicable disease
The accumulation of a substance in a food chain is:
Industry processes combine with moisture and fall to the earth as
Acid Rain
A weather condition which a cold layer of air is trapped by a warm layer so that pollutants cannot be dispersed :
Temperature Inversion
Different types of exposures
Moisture combining with industry combustion forms
Acid Rain
Headache, chronic bronchitis, dizziness and fatigue is results of:
Carbon Monoxide
A measure of local air quality and what it means for health is:
Air quality index
An antidote for household insecticides is:
Water, and some drugs
Specifically deals with antidotes:
Clinical toxicologist
The degree to which a substance is toxic is:
Ultraviolet rays, microwaves, x-rays, sun, uranium, and nucler weapons are forms of:
Layers of skin
Epidermis-outer layer
Dermis middle layer, cushions the boyd
Adipose tissue- fat layer
Area of the lung that has the greatest gas exchange: