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395 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Collaborative HR
The process of HR professionals from several different organizations working jointly to address shared business problems.
Core competency
A unique capability that creates high value and differentiates an organization from its competition.
HR Generalist
A person who has responsibility for performing a variety of HR activities.
HR Specialist
A person who has in-depth knowledge and expertise in a limited area of HR.
Human capital
The collective value of the capabilities, knowledge, skills, life experiences, and motivation of an organizational workforce.
Human Resource (HR) management
The direction of organizational systems to ensure that human talent is used effectively and efficiently to accomplish organizational goals.
Human resource management system (HRMS)
An integrated system providing information used by HR management in decision making.
Organizational culture
The shared values and beliefs in an organization.
Comparing specific measures of performance against data on those measures in other organizations.
Societal forces affecting the values, beliefs, and actions of a distinct group of people.
Economic value added (EVA)
Net operating profit of a firm after the cost of capital is deducted.
The extent to which goals have been met.
The degree to which operations are done in an economical manner.
Environmental scanning
Process of studying the environment of the organization to pinpoint opportunities and threats.
Using information from the past and the present to identify expected future conditions.
Global organization
Firm that has corporate units in a number of countries that are integrated to operate worldwide.
HR audit
Formal research effort that evaluates the current state of HR management in an organization.
HR metrics
Specific measures tied to HR performance indicators.
HR Strategies
Means used to anticipate and manage the supply of and demand for human resources.
Human resource (HR) planning
Process of analyzing and identifying the need for and availability of human resources so that the organization can meet its objectives.
Importing and exporting
Buying and selling goods and services with organizations in other countries.
Dimension of culture that refers to the extent to which people in a country prefer to act as individuals instead of members of groups.
Long-term orientation
Dimension of culture that refers to the preference of people in a country for long-term values as opposed to short-term values.
Dimension of culture that refers to the degree to which “masculine” values prevail over “feminine” values.
Multi-national enterprise (MNE)
Organization that has operating units located in foreign countries.
Organizational culture
The shared values and beliefs in an organization.
Power distance
Dimension of culture that refers to the inequality among the people of a nation.
Measure of the quantity and quality of work done, considering the cost of the resources used.
Return on investment (ROI)
Calculation showing the value of expenditures for HR activities.
Strategic HR management
Use of employees to gain or keep a competitive advantage, resulting in greater organizational effectiveness.
Succession planning
Process of identifying a longer-term plan for the orderly replacement of key employees.
Uncertainty avoidance
Dimension of culture that refers to the preference of people in a country for structured rather than unstructured situations.
Unit labor cost
Computed by dividing the average cost of workers by their average levels of output.
Attitude survey
A survey that focuses on employees’ feelings and beliefs about their jobs and the organization.
Exit interview
An interview in which individuals are asked to give their reasons for leaving the organization.
Job satisfaction
A positive emotional state resulting from evaluating one’s job experiences.
The desire within a person causing that person to act.
Organizational commitment
The degree to which employees believe in and accept organizational goals and desire to remain with the organization.
Organizational culture
The shared values and beliefs of a workforce.
Psychological contract
The unwritten expectations employees and employers have about the nature of their work relationships.
The process in which employees leave an organization and have to be replaced.
4/5ths rule
Discrimination exists if the selection rate for a protected group is less than 80% (4/5ths) of the selection rate for the majority group or less than 80% of the majority group’s representation in the relevant labor market.
Affirmative action
Employers are urged to hire groups of people based on their race, age, gender, or national origin, to make up for historical discrimination.
Blind to differences
Differences among people should be ignored and everyone should be treated equally.
Bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ)
Characteristic providing a legitimate reason why an employer can exclude persons on otherwise illegal bases of consideration.
Burden of proof
What individuals who file suit against employers must prove in order to establish that illegal discrimination has occurred.
Business necessity
Practice necessary for safe and efficient organizational operations.
Concurrent validity
Measured when an employer tests current employees and correlates the scores with their performance ratings.
Content validity
Validity measured by a logical, non-statistical method to identify the KSAs and other characteristics necessary to perform a job.
Correlation coefficient
Index number giving the relationship between a predictor and a criterion variable.
Criterion-related validity
Validity measured by a procedure that uses a test as the predictor of how well an individual will perform on the job.
Disabled person
Someone who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits life activities, who has a record of such an impairment, or who is regarded as having such an impairment.
Disparate impact
Occurs when members of a protected class are substantially under-represented as a result of employment decisions that work to their disadvantage.
Disparate treatment
Occurs when members of a protected class are treated differently from others.
Employment “test”
Any employment procedure used as the basis for making an employment-related decision.
Equal employment
Employment that is not affected by illegal discrimination.
Essential job functions
Fundamental duties of a job.
Dispute resolution process by which a third party helps negotiators reach a settlement.
Pay equity
Idea that pay for jobs requiring comparable levels of knowledge, skill, and ability should be similar, even if actual duties differ significantly.
Predictive validity
Measured when test results of applicants are compared with subsequent job performance.
Protected class
Individuals within a group identified for protection under equal employment laws and regulations.
Reasonable accommodation
A modification or adjustment to a job or work environment for a qualified individual with a disability.
Consistency with which a test measures an item.
Punitive actions taken by employers against individuals who exercise their legal rights.
Sexual harassment
Actions that are sexually directed, are unwanted, and subject the worker to adverse employment conditions or create a hostile work environment.
Undue hardship
Significant difficulty or expense imposed on an employer in making an accommodation for individuals with disabilities.
Extent to which a test actually measures what it says it measures.
Affirmative action plan (AAP)
Formal document that an employer compiles annually for submission to enforcement agencies.
Availability analysis
Identifies the number of protected-class members available to work in the appropriate labor markets for given jobs.
Glass ceiling
Discriminatory practices that have prevented women and other protected-class members from advancing to executive-level jobs.
Hostile environment
Sexual harassment in which an individual’s work performance or psychological well-being is unreasonably affected by intimidating or offensive working conditions.
Practice of allowing relatives to work for the same employer.
Phased retirement
Approach in which employees gradually reduce their workloads and pay.
Quid pro quo
Sexual harassment in which employment outcomes are linked to the individual granting sexual favors.
Reverse discrimination
When a person is denied an opportunity because of preferences given to protected-class individuals who may be less qualified.
Utilization analysis
Identifies the number of protected-class members employed in the organization and the types of jobs they hold.
Extent of individual freedom and discretion in the work and its scheduling.
Business process re-engineering (BPR)
Measures for improving such activities as product development, customer service, and service delivery.
Individual capabilities that can be linked to enhanced performance by individuals or teams.
Compressed workweek
Schedule in which a full week’s work is accomplished in fewer than 5 8-hour days.
Larger work segment composed of several tasks that are performed by an individual.
Amount of information employees receive about how well or how poorly they have performed.
Scheduling arrangement in which employees work a set number of hours a day but vary starting and ending times.
Grouping of tasks, duties, and responsibilities that constitutes the total work assignment for employees.
Job analysis
Systematic way of gathering and analyzing information about the content, context, and human requirements of jobs.
Job description
Identification of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job.
Job design
Organizing tasks, duties, and responsibilities into a productive unit of work.
Job enlargement
Broadening the scope of a job by expanding the number of different tasks to be performed.
Job enrichment
Increasing the depth of a job by adding responsibility for planning, organizing, controlling, or evaluating the job.
Job rotation
Process of shifting a person from job to job.
Job sharing
Scheduling arrangement in which two employees perform the work of one full-time job.
Job specifications
The knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) an individual needs to perform a job satisfactorily.
Marginal job functions
Duties that are part of a job but are incidental or ancillary to the purpose and nature of the job.
Performance standards
Indicators of what the job accomplishes and how performance is measured in key areas of the job description.
Person/job fit
Matching characteristics of people with characteristics of jobs.
Obligations to perform certain tasks and duties.
Self-directed team
Organizational team composed of individuals who are assigned a cluster of tasks, duties and responsibilities to be accomplished.
Skill variety
Extent to which the work requires several different activities for successful completion.
Special-purpose team
Organizational team formed to address specific problems, improve work processes, and enhance product and service quality.
Distinct, identifiable work activity composed of motions.
Task identity
Extent to which the job includes a “whole” identifiable unit of work that is carried out from start to finish and that results in a visible outcome.
Task significance
Impact the job has on other people.
Virtual team
Organizational team composed of individuals who are geographically separated but linked by communications technology.
Effort directed toward accomplishing results.
Workflow analysis
Study of the way work (inputs, activities, and outputs) moves through an organization.
Acceptance rate
Percent of applicants hired divided by total number of applicants.
Applicant pool
All persons who are actually evaluated for selection.
Applicant population
A subset of the labor force population that is available for selection using a particular recruiting approach.
Flexible staffing
Use of workers who are not traditional employees.
Independent contractors
Workers who perform specific services on a contract basis.
Job posting
System in which the employer provides notices of job openings and employees respond by applying.
Labor force population
All individuals who are available for selection if all possible recruitment strategies are used.
Labor markets
External supply pool from which organizations attract employees.
Process of generating a pool of qualified applicants for organizational jobs.
Selection rate
Percentage hired from a given group of candidates.
Yield ratios
Comparisons of the number of applicants at one stage of the recruiting process with the number at the next stage.
Behavioral interview
Interview in which applicants give specific examples of how they have performed a certain task or handled a problem in the past.
Cognitive ability tests
Tests that measure an individual’s thinking, memory, reasoning, verbal, and mathematical abilities.
Citizen of one country who is working in a second country and employed by an organization headquartered in the first country.
Host-country national
Citizen of one country who is working in that country and employed by an organization headquartered in a second country.
Negligent hiring
Occurs when an employer fails to check an employee’s background and the employee injures someone.
Negligent retention
Occurs when an employer becomes aware that an employee may be unfit for employment, continues to employ the person, and the person injures someone.
Non-directive interview
Interview that uses questions developed from the answers to previous questions.
Panel interview
Interview in which several interviewers meet with the candidate at the same time.
Person-organization fit
The congruence between individuals and organizational factors.
Person/job fit
Matching the KSAs of people with the characteristics of jobs.
Physical ability tests
Tests that measure an individual’s abilities such as strength, endurance, and muscular movement.
Fitting a person to the right job.
Measurable or visible indicators of a selection criterion.
Psychomotor tests
Tests that measure dexterity, hand-eye coordination, arm-hand steadiness, and other factors.
Realistic job preview (RJP)
Process through which a job applicant receives an accurate picture of a job.
Process of choosing individuals with qualifications needed to fill jobs in an organization.
Selection criterion
Characteristic that a person must have to do a job successfully.
Situational interview
Structured interview composed of questions about how applicants might handle specific job situations.
Situational judgment tests
Tests that measure a person’s judgment in work settings.
Stress interview
Interview designed to create anxiety and put pressure on applicants to see how they respond.
Structured interview
Interview that uses a set of standardized questions asked of all job applicants.
Team interview
Interview in which applicants are interviewed by the team members with whom they will work.
Third-country national
Citizen of one country who is working in a second country and employed by an organization headquartered in a third country.
Work sample tests
Tests that require an applicant to perform a simulated job task.
Active practice
Performance of job-related tasks and duties by trainees during training.
Behavior modeling
Copying someone else’s behavior.
Cost-benefit analysis
Comparison of costs and benefits associated with training.
Cross training
Training people to do more than one job.
Use of the Internet or an organizational intranet to conduct training on-line.
Immediate confirmation
Based on the idea that people learn best if reinforcement and feedback are given after training.
Informal training
Training that occurs through interactions and feedback among employees.
Knowledge management
The way an organization identifies and leverages knowledge in order to be competitive.
Massed practice
Practice performed all at once.
Planned introduction of new employees to their jobs, co-workers, and the organization.
Performance consulting
Process in which a trainer and the organizational client work together to determine what needs to be done to improve results.
Based on the idea that people tend to repeat responses that give them some type of positive reward and avoid actions associated with negative consequences.
Person’s belief that he or she can successfully learn the training program content.
Spaced practice
Practice performed in several sessions spaced over a period of hours or days.
Process whereby people acquire capabilities to perform jobs.
Assessment centers
Collections of instruments and exercises designed to diagnose individuals’ development needs.
Series of work-related positions a person occupies throughout life.
Career paths
Represent employees’ movements through opportunities over time.
Training and feedback given to employees by immediate supervisors.
Efforts to improve employees’ abilities to handle a variety of assignments and to cultivate employees’ capabilities beyond those required by the current job.
Dual-career ladder
System that allows a person to advance up either a management ladder or a corresponding ladder on the technical/professional side of a career.
Encapsulated development
Situation in which an individual learns new methods and ideas in a development course and returns to a work unit that is still bound by old attitudes and methods.
Individual-centered career planning
Career planning focusing on an individual’s career rather than on organizational needs.
Job rotation
Process of shifting a person from job to job.
Management mentoring
Relationship in which experienced managers aid individuals in the earlier stages of their careers.
Organization-centered career planning
Career planning that focuses on identifying career paths that provide for the logical progression of people between jobs in an organization.
Planning, training, and reassignment of global employees to their home countries.
Paid time off the job to develop and rejuvenate oneself.
Technique that requires participants to analyze a situation and decide the best course of action according to data given.
Succession planning
Process of identifying a longer-term plan for the orderly replacement of key employees.
Central tendency error
Occurs when a rater gives all employees a score within a narrow range in the middle of the scale.
Contrast error
Tendency to rate people relative to others rather than against performance standards.
Forced distribution
Performance appraisal method in which ratings of employees’ performance are distributed along a bell-shaped curve.
Graphic rating scale
Scale that allows the rater to mark an employee’s performance on a continuum.
Halo effect
Occurs when a rater scores an employee high on all job criteria because of performance in one area.
Job criteria
Important elements in a given job.
Leniency error
Occurs when ratings of all employees fall at the high end of the scale.
Management by objectives (MBO)
Performance appraisal method that specifies the performance goals that an individual and manager mutually identify.
Performance appraisal
Process of evaluating how well employees perform their jobs and then communicating that information to the employees.
Performance management
Composed of the processes used to identify, measure, communicate, develop, and reward employee performance.
Primacy effect
Occurs when a rater gives greater weight to information received first when appraising an individual’s performance.
Performance appraisal method in which all employees are listed from highest to lowest in performance.
Rater bias
Occurs when a rater’s values or prejudices distort the rating.
Recency effect
Occurs when a rater gives greater weight to recent events when appraising an individual’s performance.
Strictness error
Occurs when ratings of all employees fall at the low end of the scale.
Balance-sheet approach
Compensation plan that equalizes cost differences between identical international and home-country assignments.
Base pay
Basic compensation that an employee receives, usually as a wage or a salary.
Benchmark jobs
Jobs found in many organizations.
Indirect reward given to an employee or a group of employees for organizational membership.
Practice of using fewer pay grades with much broader ranges than in traditional compensation systems.
Pay level divided by the midpoint of the pay range.
Compensable factor
Factor that identifies a job value commonly present throughout a group of jobs.
Compensatory time off
Hours given to an employee in lieu of payment for extra time worked.
Competency-based pay
Rewards individuals for the capabilities they demonstrate and acquire.
Distributive justice
Perceived fairness in the distribution of outcomes.
Entitlement philosophy
Assumes that individuals who have worked another year are entitled to pay increases, with little regard for performance differences.
Perceived fairness between what a person does and what the person receives.
Exempt employees
Employees to whom employers are not required to pay overtime under the Fair Labor Standards Act.
A court action in which a portion of an employee’s wages is set aside to pay a debt owed a creditor.
Global market approach
Compensation plan that attempts to be more comprehensive in providing base pay, incentives, benefits, and relocation expenses regardless of the country to which the employee is assigned.
Green-circled employee
Incumbent who is paid below the range set for the job.
Job evaluation
Formal, systematic means to identify the relative worth of jobs within an organization.
Job family
Group of jobs having common organizational characteristics.
Living wage
One that is supposed to meet the basic needs of a worker’s family.
Lump-sum increase (LSI)
One-time payment of all or part of a yearly pay increase.
Market banding
Grouping jobs into pay grades based on similar market survey amounts.
Market line
Graph line that shows the relationship between job value as determined by job evaluation points and job value as determined by pay survey rates.
Market pricing
Use of pay survey data to identify the relative value of jobs based on what other employers pay for similar jobs.
Non-exempt employees
Employees who must be paid overtime under the Fair Labor Standards Act.
Pay compression
Occurs when the pay differences among individuals with different levels of experience and performance become small.
Pay equity
Similarity in pay for all jobs requiring comparable knowledge, skills, and abilities, even if actual duties and market rates differ significantly.
Pay grades
Groupings of individual jobs having approximately the same job worth.
Pay survey
Collection of data on compensation rates for workers performing similar jobs in other organizations.
Pay-for-performance philosophy
Requires that compensation changes reflect individual performance differences.
Procedural justice
Perceived fairness of the process and procedures used to make decisions about employees.
Red-circled employee
Incumbent who is paid above the range set for the job.
Consistent payments made each period regardless of the number of hours worked.
Time spent in the organization or on a particular job.
Tax equalization plan
Compensation plan used to protect expatriates from negative tax consequences.
Variable pay
Compensation linked directly to individual, team, or organizational performance.
Payments directly calculated on the amount of time worked.
One-time payment that does not become part of the employee’s base pay.
Compensation computed as a percentage of sales in units or dollars.
Compensation committee
Subgroup of the board of directors, composed of directors who are not officers of the firm.
Amount advanced from and repaid to future commissions earned by the employee.
Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP)
Plan whereby employees have significant stock ownership in their employers.
System of sharing with employees greater-than-expected gains in profits and/or productivity.
Perquisites (perks)
Special benefits—usually non-cash items—for executives.
Profit sharing
System to distribute a portion of the profits of the organization to employees.
Stock option plan
Plan that gives employees the right to purchase a fixed number of shares of company stock at a specified price for a limited period of time.
Straight piece-rate system
Pay system in which wages are determined by multiplying the number of units produced by the piece rate for one unit.
Variable pay
Compensation linked to individual, group/team, and/or organizational performance.
401(k) plan
Agreement in which a percentage of an employee’s pay is withheld and invested in a tax-deferred account.
Adverse selection
Situation in which only higher-risk employees select and use certain benefits.
Indirect reward given to an employee or a group of employees for organizational membership.
Cash balance plan
Retirement program in which benefits are based on an accumulation of annual company contributions, expressed as a percentage of pay, plus interest credited each year.
Strategy requiring employees to pay a portion of the cost of insurance premiums, medical care, and prescription drugs.
Consumer-driven health (CDH) plan
One that provides employer financial contributions to employees to cover their own health-related expenses.
Contributory plan
Pension plan in which the money for pension benefits is paid in by both employees and employers.
Defined-benefit plan
Retirement program in which an employee is promised a pension amount based on age and service.
Defined-contribution plan
Retirement program in which the employer makes an annual payment to an employee’s pension account.
Flexible benefits plan
Program that allows employees to select the benefits they prefer from groups of benefits established by the employer.
Flexible spending accounts
Benefits plans that allow employees to contribute pre-tax dollars to buy certain additional benefits.
Health maintenance organization (HMO)
Plan that provides services for a fixed period on a pre-paid basis.
Managed care
Approaches that monitor and reduce medical costs through restrictions and market system alternatives.
Non-contributory plan
Pension plan in which all the funds for pension benefits are provided by the employer.
Paid-time-off (PTO) plans
Plans that combine all sick leave, vacation time, and holidays into a total number of hours or days that employees can take off with pay.
Pension plan
Retirement program established and funded by the employer and employees.
A pension plan feature that allows employees to move their pension benefits from one employer to another.
Preferred provider organization (PPO)
A health-care provider that contracts with an employer group to supply health-care services to employees at a competitive rate.
Serious health condition
One requiring in-patient, hospital, hospice, or residential medical care or continuing physician care.
Severance pay
Security benefit voluntarily offered by employers to employees who lose their jobs.
Stock purchase plan
Plan in which the corporation provides matching funds equal to the amount invested by the employee for the purchase of stock in the company.
Utilization review
Audit of the services and costs billed by health-care providers.
Right of employees to receive certain benefits from their pension plans.
Extra pay for not taking sick leave.
Workers’ compensation
Security benefits provided to persons injured on the job.
Cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs)
Muscle and skeletal injuries that occur when workers repetitively use the same muscles to perform tasks.
Employee assistance program (EAP)
Program that provides counseling and other help to employees having emotional, physical, or other personal problems.
Study and design of the work environment to address physiological and physical demands on individuals.
General state of physical, mental, and emotional well-being.
Health promotion
Supportive approach of facilitating and encouraging healthy actions and lifestyles among employees.
Lock out / tag out regulations
Requirements that locks and tags be used to make equipment inoperative for repair or adjustment.
Condition in which the physical well-being of people is protected.
Protection of employees and organizational facilities.
Security audit
Comprehensive review of organizational security.
Substance abuse
Use of illicit substances or misuse of controlled substances, alcohol, or other drugs.
Wellness programs
Programs designed to maintain or improve employee health before problems arise.
Process that uses a neutral third party to make a decision.
Constructive discharge
Deliberately making conditions intolerable to get an employee to quit.
Contractual rights
Rights based on a specific contract between an employer and an employee.
Form of training that enforces organizational rules.
Distributive justice
Perceived fairness in the distribution of outcomes.
Due process
Requirement that the employer use fair means to determine employee wrongdoing and/or disciplinary measures, and that the employee have an opportunity to explain and defend his or her actions.
Employment contract
Agreement that formally outlines the details of employment.
Employment-at-will (EAW)
Common-law doctrine stating that employers have the right to hire, fire, demote, or promote whomever they choose, unless there is a law or a contract to the contrary.
Just cause
Reasonable justification for taking employment-related action.
Non-compete agreements
Agreements that prohibit individuals who leave the organization from competing with an employer in the same line of business for a specified period of time.
General guidelines that focus organizational actions.
Procedural justice
Perceived fairness of the processes used to make decisions about employees.
Customary methods of handling activities.
Obligations to perform certain tasks and duties.
Right to privacy
An individual’s freedom from unauthorized and unreasonable intrusion into their personal affairs.
Powers, privileges, or interests that belong to a person by law, nature, or tradition.
Specific guidelines that regulate and restrict the behavior of individuals.
Separation agreement
Agreement in which a terminated employee agrees not to sue the employer, in exchange for specified benefits.
Statutory rights
Rights based on laws or statutes.
Individuals who report real or perceived wrongs committed by their employers.
Wrongful discharge
Termination of an individual’s employment for reasons that are improper or illegal.
Process that uses a neutral third party to make a decision.
Bargaining unit
Employees eligible to select a single union to represent and bargain collectively for them.
Business agent
Full-time union official who operates the union office and assists union members.
Closed shop
Firm that requires individuals to join a union before they can be hired.
Practice whereby union or worker representatives are given positions on a company’s board of directors.
Collective bargaining
Process whereby representatives of management and workers negotiate over wages, hours, and other terms and conditions of employment.
Indication of employee dissatisfaction.
Process by which a third party attempts to keep union and management negotiators talking so that they can reach a voluntary settlement.
Craft union
One whose members do one type of work, often using specialized skills and training.
Process whereby a union is removed as the representative of a group of employees.
Group of autonomous national and international unions.
Complaint formally stated in writing.
Grievance arbitration
Means by which a third party settles disputes arising from different interpretations of a labor contract.
Grievance procedures
Formal channels of communication used to resolve grievances.
Illegal issues
Collective bargaining issues that would require either party to take illegal action.
Industrial union
One that includes many persons working in the same industry or company, regardless of jobs held.
Shutdown of company operations undertaken by management to prevent union members from working.
Management rights
Rights reserved so that the employer can manage, direct, and control its business.
Mandatory issues
Collective bargaining issues identified specifically by labor laws or court decisions as subject to bargaining.
Process by which a third party helps the negotiators reach a settlement.
National emergency strike
Strike that would impact the national economy significantly.
Open shop
Workers are not required to join or pay dues to a union.
Permissive issues
Collective bargaining issues that are not mandatory and relate to certain jobs.
Process by which union members vote to accept the terms of a negotiated labor agreement.
Right-to-work laws
State laws that prohibit requiring employees to join unions as a condition of obtaining or continuing employment.
Practice in which unions hire and pay people to apply for jobs at certain companies.
Work stoppage in which union members refuse to work in order to put pressure on an employer.
Formal association of workers that promotes the interests of its members through collective action.
Union authorization card
Card signed by an employee to designate a union as her or his collective bargaining agent.
Union security provisions
Contract clauses to help the union obtain and retain members.
Union steward
Employee elected to serve as the first-line representative of unionized workers.
What does NLRB stand for?
National Labor Relations Board.
A contract bar occurs when?
An election is barred because of an existing valid union contract.
What is a decertification election?
An NLRB election to determine if a majority of the employees want the union decertified.
A directed election is?
A representation election directed by the NLRB.
A consent election occurs when?
An employer accepts and employee representation request from the union and agrees to an election.
An agency shop is?
A union provision requiring union members and non-members to pay union dues.
The practice of requiring employers to hire extra workers who are not wanted or needed is called?
True or False: Good-Faith Bargaining is when parties make offers and counteroffers to reach an agreement?
A position of relative advantage over one's competition is called?
Competitive Advantage.
The 3 components of the Expectancy Theory of Motivation are?
Expectancy, instrumentality, and valence.
What is the process of dividing work into specialized jobs that are performed by separate individuls?
Division of Labor.
A study in which variables in an organization are measured and correlated is a?
Correlation Study.
What is an HR Manager who is required to understand all of the major personnel functions and their relationship to business functions?
Human Resource Generalist.
An evaluation of how well an HR department is performing its responsibilities and meeting its objectives is an?
HR Audit.
True or False: Money is one example of Herzberg's Hygiene Factor?
An HR department member who specializes in a particular HR function such as compensation or recruitment is called a?
HR Specialist.
True or False: Local Nationals are employees hired by a multinational company to work in their own country (they are also called host country nationals.)
What is the theory of motivation based on a hierarchy of physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs?
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.
Reinforcement Theory is?
A theory of motivation that says behavior is determined by the types of rewards or punishments associated with the behavior.
Regression Analysis is?
A statistical technique for predicting the value of one dependant variable based on a weighted combination of independent variables.
An HR accounting measure that estimates the cost to replace an employee in current dollars is called the?
Replacement Cost.
Written plans for recruiting and hiring minorities and females are called?
Affirmative Action Plans (AAP).
What is one technique for selecting employees that exposes the candidate to a typical day on the job?
A Realistic Job Preview.
True or False: A reduction in the number of personnel caused by failing to replace people who leave is called attrition?
True or False: Bona Fide Occupational Qualifications are attributes that allow an employer to discriminate when they are necessary for operation of the business.
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission is a government agency created by what act?
The Civil Rights Act of 1964.
True or False: The EEOC guideline to determine whether a selection procedure has an adverse impact on selection is called the Three-Fifths Rule?
False (It is the Four-Fifths Rule).
Attitudinal and organizational barriers that inhibit the career advancement of women is called a?
Glass Ceiling.
True or False: Adverse impact occurs when the selection rate for any minority or gender group is less than four-fifths of the selection rage for the highest group?
The review of jobs within a company that produces a job description or a job specification is called?
A Job Analysis.
True or False: Job bidding is an internal recruiting process that allows employees who think they are qualified to apply for a job that has become vacant?
Creating wide labor grades so that there are fewer grades with more jobs in each grade is called?
True or False: A compa-ratio compares a person's pay rate with a comparable pay range?
False (It compares a person's pay rate with the mid-point of a pay range.)
A procedure that provides for automatic increases in pay based on rate of inflation indexed to the consumer price index is called a?
COLA (Cost Of Living Adjustment).
What is the procedure for developing a wage structure based on an assessment of the job?
Job Evaluation.
A pay system that ties pay to performance is called?
Pay for Performance.
Jobs that are underpaid relative to the wage curve are called?
Green Circle Jobs.
A large number of individuals picketing a given site is?
Mass picketing.
The detailed set of steps a unit, department, or team will take to achieve short-term objectives is called an?
Action Plan.
A type of analysis that uses statistical measures to collect, interpret, and communicate data is called?
Quantitative Analysis.
The combined knowledge, skills, and experience of a company's employees is called?
Human Capital.
True of False: A sample is a portion of the population that is used to draw conclusions regarding the entire population?
A framework that aligns individual business function measures with organizational strategies to track progress and reinforce accountability and opportunities is called?
A Balanced Scorecard.
True or False: Validity is the ability of an instrument to measure what it is intended to measure?
A measure of centeral tendency that indicates the value that occurs most frequently is called the?
SWOT is organizational information that is used in?
Strategic Planning (It stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats).
What analysis shows the point in time when the return of an HR program is equal to or greater than the money put into it?
Break-even Analysis.
What is the final phase of strategic planning that includes reviewing strategies, measuring performance, and taking appropriate corrective action?
Strategy Evaluation.
True or False: Midterm objectives are completed in one to three years?
This act requires that construction contractors and their subcontractors pay at least the prevailing wage in the area if they are receiving federal funds?
The Davis Bacon Act (1931).
What is the measure of central tendency that indicates the average score or value?
The Mean.
Surveying, identifying, and interpreting relevant data to identify external opportunities and threats is called?
Environmental Scanning.
What are the 4 broad categories of Strategic Planning?
Environment scanning, strategy formulation, strategy implementation, and strategy evaluation.
What is the phase of the strategic planning process in which the organization's vision, mission, and values are composed?
Strategy formulation.
The use of data already gathered by others and reported in various sources is called?
Secondary Research.
True or False: Short-term objectives and milestones are usually achieved within six months to one year?
The extent to which organizational or departmental goals have been met is called?
What describes what is important to an organization, prescribes employee behavior, and creates the organization's culture.
True or False: The mode is the measure of central tendency that indicates the point below which 50 percent of the scores lie.
False (the Median does that, the mode is the value that occurs most often).
What is the measure of variation that indicates the distance between the highest and lowest scores?
The Range.
The ability of an instrument to measure consistently is called?
Data that is collected firsthand for the specific analysis that is being conducted is called?
Primary Research.
Measures that need to be accomplished in three to five years in order for an organization to meet its mission are called?
Long-term Objectives.
The course that management has charted for the future and the associated activities that the organization intends to pursue is called a?
Mission Statement.
A centralized and specialized organizational structure that is arranged by business function is called a?
Functional Structure.
What is the degree to which operations are done in an economical manner?
What was the 1971 case that identified adverse impact discrimination?
Griggs vs Duke Power.
True or False: The Age Discrimination in Employment Act prohibits discrimination in employment for persons aged 40 or over except where age is a BFOQ?
The primary job duties that a qualified person must be able to perform either with or without accomadation are called?
Essential Functions.
What limits the amount of wages that can be garnished or withheld in any one week by the employer to satisfy creditors?
Consumer Credit Protection Act.
Questions that begin with what, where, why, when, or how are called?
Open Questions.
True or False: The Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act (WARN) requires some employers to give a minimum of 60 days notice if a plant is to close or if mass layoffs will occur?
What are basic job characteristics and broad statements of the factors needed to be successful in the organization?
Job Competencies.
True or False: Ellerth vs Burlington Northern Industries is the ruling that distinguished between supervisor harassment that results in tangible employment action and supervisore harassment that does not?
The court ruling that ultimately established the reasonable person standard in sexual harassment cases is?
Harris vs Forklift Systems, Inc.