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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
7 major messages (nutrition)

caloric balance, variety, increase intake of fruits, veggies, grains, dairy, choose carbs wisely, choose fats wisely, choose foods with less salt, alcohol in moderation, food safety
why eat fruits/veg/grains/dairy?
health benefits: weight control, heart disease, diabetes, bone health, cancer

provide nutrient rich carbs
complex vs. simple carbs
complex- digestion takes longer. enzymes have to work longer to break down food. bran, oatmeal, etc.

simple- digested quickly. lots of empty calories. fruits, cakes, etc
whole grain. parts?
bran (fiber), germ (essential fats), endosperm (energy)

B.E.G.- order
how many servings of fruits + veggies per day?

make at least ____ of your grains whole

__ dairy servings/day

half (3 of more)

3+ (1 oz or 1 cup)
bad fats
saturated and trans
increase LDL cholesterol :(
contribute to coronary artery disease
good fats
monounsaturated and polyunsaturated
increase HDL cholesterol :)
beneficial or neutral effect on chronic disease
examples of saturated and trans fats
s- full fat dairy products, fatty meats

t- margerine, shortening, chips, fatty crackers, cookies
why is tub margerine bettter than butter?
less hydrogenated oil, water incorporated, plant sterols/stanols

use olive or canola oil for cookies and snack on nuts and seeds
__% of americans exceed recomended upper limit for salt intake

high sodium intake is associated with ___?

elevated blood pressure
what can you do in order to not exceed recommdned amts of salt
don't add salt to foods

avoid processed and canned foods, snack foods, fast food
__ million Americans suffer foodborne illness each year

____ Americans die

"danger zone" for food


between 140 and 40 degrees
spiritual health?

(4 factors)
affirmation of life in a relationship with god, self, community, and envirment
relationship with self
4 components
life purpose or meaning
self esteem
self identitiy
relationships with others
4 components
deep interaction with others
ability to listen
morality and culture
love, justice, hope, faith in humanity
relationship with environment
3 components
sense of awe and wonder
care and nurture of environment
notion of unity with nature
relationship with transcendent other
2 components
relationship with something beyond human level
may involve faith, adoration, worship
tie to self, others, and a larger meaning
ability to be fully present in the moment, clarity (inner flow)


belief in something you can't see

looking confidently into the future

accepting respecting affirming self and others
spirituality vs. religion
s- belief in a unifying force that gives purpose/meaning to life

r- specific system of belief, worship, conduct
most popular religions?
christianity- 2.1 billion
islam- 1.3 billion
secular/agnostic/athiest- 1.1 billion
hinduism- 900 million
chinese trasitional- 394 million
buddhism- 376 million
__ % of women pray
__ % of men pray
__ % pray on a regular basis
intercessory prayer
prayer for someone else

"prayer may be an effective adjunct to standard medical care"
__ % believe in god
__ % of patients want to have their spiritual commitment addressed
__ % would like to pray with physician

spirituality is rarely addressed during medical visits
__ % of hospitalized patients believed that faith was the most important factor in coping. __% of physicians agreed

patients __ times less likely to die if they found strength in religion and stayed socially involved
patients with no religious affiliation have an average of __ days in the hospital. patients with religious affilliation have average of __ days in hospital

individuals who frequently attended religious services were __% less likely to die than infrequent attendees

shown to be a better predictor than smoking, race, income, education, etc
life expectancy


for blacks?
o- 7 year

b- 14 years
study of interrelationship of mind and body and influence of emotion upon immune system.
-inherent healing abilities
-endocrinology, immunology
-psychology, neurology, etc
care more for others than yourself

value human relationships
what % of people say they would leave their body unchanged?
body image is....
inner view of our outer self
picture of the body seen through the mind's eye
can feel as real as the body itself
5 apects of body image

visual- perception of image in the mirror
emotional- what do you feel?
mental- what do you think about yourself?
kinesthetic- sense and control of body
historical- lifetime of experiences
body image develops in context of our environment (3 factors)

derive information from....
family, peers, society

from feedback we receive from others (teasing, compliments) as well as role models (people around us experiencing own bodies)
as early as what age do we express clear preference for thin physiques?
age 4

associate negative attributes such as laziness stupidity dishonesty etc
perfectionist family can cause...

chaotic family can cause...

4 types of self esteem?
general, social, parent-related, academic
general self esteem
one's overall perception of self worth
social self esteem
perception of interpersonal peer relationships
parent related self esteem
ones perception of his/her status at home, including how his/her parents view him/her
academic self esteem
ones perception of ability to succeed academically
negative body image?

(low, refrain, minimize, vulnerable)
low self esteem
refrain from doing things they don't do well
minimize good qualities
vulnerable to unsafe and dramatic methods of changing bodies
Atkins Diet

founder? upside? downside?
what you'll eat? what you wont?
robert atkins
quick visible results
vegetarian unfriendly regimen
eat- red meat, bacon, eggs, cheese, butter, nuts, some fruits and veggies
won't- potatoes, rice, pasta, bread, sweets
difference between nutrititionist and dietitician
dieticians are registered
south beach diet

founder? upside? downside?
what you'll eat? what you won't?
arthur agatston
quick visible results
restrictive, hard to follow
eat- lean cuts of meat, poultry, fish, eggs, fat free cheese. eventually most fruits, some breads
won't- refined grains, sweets, potatoes, fruit juices
south beach diet relies on g_____ i_____.

what is it?
glycemic index

rates food on what it does to blood sugar. how fast food is broken down and absorbed
weight watchers

founders? upside? downside? what you'll eat? what you wont? experts say?
Jean Nidetch + Felice Markes
Eat whatever you want
female pep rally meetings
eat- everything in moderation
won't- nothing is out of bounds
experts say thumbs up
zone diet- 40-40-30?

founder? upside? downside? what you'll eat? what you won't? experts say?
40% carbs 30% protein 30% fat
barry sears
steady weight loss, favored by some athletes
protein may be a bit high
eat- seafood, poultry, lean cuts of red meat, nuts, fruits, veggies
won't- butter, shortening, fatty meats
most experts say thumbs down b/c too much protein
scarsdale medical diet

founder? upside? downside? what you'll eat? what you won't? experts?
herman tarnower
quick visible results
restrictive, only do it for 7-14 days.
eat- fruits veggies lean protein- low carb
won't- refined grains, fatty meats
experts- very hard to follow, weight usually returns

look at 10 basic rules of scarsdale diet
mediteranean diet

founder? upside? downside? what you'll eat? what you won't? experts?
mimic eating habits of mediteranneans
eat variety of foods
high fat intake
eat- grains fruits veggies fish olive oil wine
won't- red meat, unhealthy fat
experts- okay, but be careful of fat
ornish diet

founder? upside? downside? what you'll eat? what you won't? experts?
dean ornish, md
reverses heart disease
eat- fruits, veggies, strongly encourages pa
won't- meat, nuts, alcohol, dairy that is non fat
experts- agree it is good for health, very hard to follow
diets resulted in weight loss for the ___% of compliant subjects

all diets improved ______ profile. no effects on ________ or _______.

blood pressure or glucose

claim? does it work? caution? worth the $?
boost energy and mood
research does not support claims
may acts as mild stimulant
probably not
gingko biloba

claim? does it work? caution? worth the $?
sharpens memory and concentration
research suggests placebo is as effective
may up effects of anti clotting drugs
probably not

claim? does it work? caution? worth the $?
decreases cholesterol and blood pressure
decreases cholesterol by ~5%
stinky breath and skin
glucosamine and chondrotin

claim? does it work? caution? worth the $?
relieve joint pain
considered safe
probably (but expensive)
st johns wort

claim? does it work? caution? worth the $?
treats anxiety and depression
seems to work as good as some prescriptions for mild depression
may weaken other meds (contraceptions)

claim? does it work? caution? worth the $?
reduces and shortens common cold symptoms
appears to ease symptoms by 2-4 days
considered safe
sure...if you have it to spend

claim? does it work? caution? worth the $?
decrease cholesterol, fat burner
probably not
probably harmless...but fat like substance that has 9 calories per gram

claim? does it work? caution? worth the $?
increase strength and muscle mass
half of research supports efficiency
anecdotal reports of cramps, nausea, dehydration
saw palmetto

claim? does it work? caution? worth the $?
ease symptoms of enlarged prostate
apparantly as well as some prescriptions
free of side effects
cognitive errors that can lead to poor body image

jumping to conclusions
thinking in "shoulds"
rejecting positives
extreme thinking
when you see your muscles as being smaller than they are
muscle dysmorphia
shifting vision of beauty
early 20th century?
1960's - today?
1890's? plump, voluptuous
early 20th century? corseted hour glass
1920's? flast chested, slim hipped, androgynous
1930-40's? full bodied, with emphasis on legs
1950's? voluptuous and curvaceous
1960's - today? thin, uncurvaceous
prejudice against fat
___-___ million girls suffer from eating disorders

__ million boys suffer from eating disorders

causes of eating disorders?

psychological factors
interpersonal factors
social factors
other factors (biological)
eating disorders lead to:

a- lack of estrogen, insufficient fat
o- calcium loss, stress fractures
medical complications of eating disorders?
CV: low blood pressure, hyocardiopathy
chemistries: abnormal cholesterol, low blood glucose, uric acid elevated
dental: increased cavities, tooth loss, bleeding gums
dermatology: dry skin, fine hair
brain: lack of REM sleep, affected hypothalamus
endocrine: abnormal calcium levels, sluggish reflexes, partial diabetes
fluid and electrolyte abnormalities: cramps, constipation, dehydration, edema
gynecologic: menstrual difficulty, amenorrhea, infertility
renal: kidney failure, predisposted to renal stones
% for men? for women? fat
1960- __% obese
2000- __% obese
__% of us overweight/obese
25% men 35% women
1960- 10%
2000- 30%
_____ americans die/year from obesity
hypertention twice as common
over __% of individuals with diabetes overweight

contributors of obesity?
lack of exercise, genetics, poor diet, endorcrine functions
male pattern? (more dangerous b/c?)

female pattern?
andriod (apple) - livers tend to produce more bad (LDL) cholesterol

essential fat levels
male? female?
normal levels?

what does fat do?
men- 12-15, 3-4
women- 19-25, 9-10

helps w/ nerve conduction, surrounds/protects organs, vital for normal body functions, energy source
what is cellulite?

how do you get rid of it?
excessively large fat cells causing dimples under the skin

shrink size of fat cells
BMR? how do you calculate it?

average adult is? sedentary lifestyle? hard physical labor?
amt of energy your budy burns per day
weight in lbs x 11 or kg x 24
2000 kcal
s-500 a-5000