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95 Cards in this Set

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General characteristics of leafy vegetables
Biennials, cool season, shallow-rooted, consuming after 1st year
Bibb or butterhead
small heads (leaves haven't spread)
inner leaves are tender (yellow/cream)
delicate sweet favor
Bolting
Producing a flower stalk (making it very bitter)
Iceberg
not as many nutrients, most common type in fast food, sensive to heat, leaves are thin & crisps
tipburn
not enough calcium (leaves brown)
Cos or Romaine (lettuce)
elongated head
upright head up to 10 in. tall
leaves are crisper than other heading types
in Ceaser salads
leaf lettuce
easy to grow
does not form a head
widely adaptated
harvested young
harvest when you want it
Lettuce (Temps, moisture)
sensitive to high temps
High temps cause:
seedstalk to form (bitter leaves)
internal tipburn of crisp
stunted growth
bitter leaves
Moisture:
have a shallow root system
does not tolerate drought well
Ways to avoid bitterness/ pungency
1. blanching (prevent plant from being exposed to sun)
2. using less pungent cultivars
3. harvest when temps are cool

Hot/dry temps trigger bitterness
Endive
biennial or perennial
India/ Mediterranean region
loose, narrow, medium green, finged, curly leaves
cultivation similar to lettuce, requires less watering
Chicory
Related to Endive
Native to europe
Perennial but grown as long season annual
Roasted roots have been widely used as a coffee substitue (no caffeine)
Reduces bitterness of coffee
Greens
often were wild plants that emerged early in the spring
generally consumed cooked
Spinach
rosette (leaves) edible part
seedstalk is produced in response to long days & hot temps. (not a good warm sesaon veg.)
Chard
type of beet, does not form seedstalk in warm temps
can use both leaf blades & leafstalks
colorful petioles
good flavor
Collard & Kale
Kale - crinkly leaf
Collard - bigger leaf
cool season vegetables
Collard/Kale cultivation
planting - may be seeded, transplanted, tolerate summer heat, seed in midsummer for fall harvest, light frost improves mild-cabbage like flavor
Collard/kale Harvest
Individual leaves, entire young plant can be cut off at the ground & used
Cole Crops
Cabbage, Broccoli, Cauliflower
Cole crops Background
Mustard family, can be pungent, cool season, biennial
Keys to producing cole crops
transplants, rapid growth not stress, cabbage worms must be controlled
What is cabbageworm?
3 caterpillars that feed on cole crops
lay eggs underside of leaves
can be controlled with Bt
Cabbage
Europe, forms a head, consume leaves
Cabbage Plant cultivaiton
can withstand temps below 0
can plant in early spring, & late summer
transplants used
adequate nitrogen important
Cabbage - Harvesting
when head has become firm but before it cracks/splits
Broccoli
wide adaptation, Europe, forms a flower head, consume flower buds (unopen)
Broccoli (harvesting)
harvest central head w/ 6 in. of stem (stem keeps nutrients & moisture in order to make it last long) Harvest vefore the flower buds start opening & develop a yellow color
Cauliflower
S. Europe, Most difficult to grow, must be blanched, does not tolerate her heat (won't form a head)
Must place leaves over head
3 Veg. prepared cooked
1. Spinach
2. Chard
3. Collards/kale
4 Examples of brassica oleracea
open leaves
leaves in form of a head
green flower buds
white (closed buds)
Cucurbits
Pumpkins, squash, gourds, cucumbers, melons
Cucurbits - difference female & male flowers
Only females produce fruit, need cross pollination
Monoecious flowers
curcurbits - single sex
Male flowers with stamens & female flowers with ovaries on the same plant
Requires bee pollination
Cannot collect & re-plant seeds
Cucurbits - key production problems (pest)
cucumber beetle (feed on plants & blossoms) are attracted to chemicals plants emit
Also called corn root worm (hold bacteria on mouths that kill plant - have to control beetle)
How do you control cucumber beetle?
Integrated pest management, critical to control when plants are young
Sevin & rotenone insecticides
Row tunnels (cover the plants)
Cucurbits - key production problems (other )
& controls
Viruses
transmitted by aphids, can limit summer squash production

Controls: grow resistant squash , reflective mulches
Summer Squash
harvested when rind (Skin) is still soft & seeds are mature, the smaller the more flavorful
*differences from winter squash & pumpkins
Ex - zucchini
Winter Squash
rind is hard - harvest
used as a cooked vegetable
Pumpkins
not harvested mature
processed - usually dessert food
Processing Pumpkins: thick flesh, stringy fiber (not a lot), small seed cavity
Melons
Originated in southwest Asia
& africa
Warm season
Separate male/female flowers
Need bee pollination
Muskmelon
netted outside
interior flesh :salmon

Ex: canteloupe
Melon Planting
1. Most start as transplants
2. black plastic mulch - warms soil
3. timing of planting (after danger of 1st frost)
Selecting a good melon
- rind changes from greet to tan/yellow between ribs
- stem should easily separate from vine
- blossom end of fruit fairly easy to depress
Melon problems (poor flavor)
- cloudy weather during ripening
- too much or too little water (not as sweet)
- temps. too high
- over or under ripe
Melon Problems
Cucumber beetle
Controls: sevin, black plastic mulch, row covers
Bacterial wilt - must control beetles
Winter Melon
Smooth Rind Surface
lack distinctive odor
Require long growing season (3-5 months)
(Honeydew, casaba)
Muskmelons Vs. Winter Melons
Muskmelon:
- locally grown, musky flavor, detach from stem when pulled, turn yellow when ripe

Winter Melon:
Grown in southwest (warm climates)
Do not have musky flavor (sweet)
Must be cut from plant
May or may not turn yellow when ripe
Watermelons
Originated in Africa, need to get lots of sugar in it
1. grow smaller type - icebox (easier to grow)
Harvesting Watermelon
surface color is dull
skin is resistant to penetration to thumbnail
Watermelon problems
Birds making holes in tops
Cucmber
2 types - pickling & slicing
Originated in Africa/Asia
Separate male/female flowers
Gynoecious cultivars
have all female flowers
energy not used to produce male flowers, can produce more fruit
Parthenocarpic cucumbers
produce fuit w/out pollination, often used in greenhouse (no bees to pollinate it)
A little more flavor
Slicing Cucumbers Vs. Pickling
Slicing:
Longer, smoother, *Darker skin

Pickling:
Blockier, Warty, *Firmer flesh
Legume
Plants that produce edible seeds in pods
Symbiotic relationship with rhizobium bacteria
Produce its own fertilizer - overcome N deficiency
Legume (diet & characteristics)
Excellent source of protein

annual seeds
seeds are in pods
fix nitrogen
Some cool season, others warm (successful plants)
Peas
Native to Med.
*Cool season
annual
Soil - well drained (so bacteria can ***get nitrogen)
Peas - what kind of emergence
Hypogeal - shoot breaks thru & the cotyledons stay below ground
Types of Peas
Dried peas
English pea - pods harvested when seeds fully form but before they harden
Edible-pod pea - grown for pod instead of seed
Snap - seed & pod eaten
Haricot Beans
Native to Central & S. America
Pod & seed consumed
Epigeal emergence - cotyledons pulled above surface, don't want to damage: storage/growing point, can damage cotyledon
Haricot Beans (charact.)
most versatile of all legumes in respect to shape & color
Fresh (snap) beans - Haricot
pods of most can be eaten fresh before they reach maturity
also called green beans or waxed beans
Look for:
firm, crip pods
healthy green pods
Healthy green or yellow color
free of blemishs
Moisture from around the break when pod is snapped in two
Sweet corn (Endosperm & Pericarp)
Unlike other corns
Endosperm - produces and retains large amounts of sugar in the kernals, than starch (seed storage material, makes seed a nutrient seed house)

Pericarp - skin of kernals
Sweet Corn: Planting
Planting timing (temporal) & cultivars w/ different maturity (varietal)
Male & Female parts of Sweet Corn
Female - ears (silk - captures pollen)
Male - anthers (produce pollen)
Sweet Corn - Pollination
-Wind Pollinated (plant in blocks of at least 4 rows to ensure good pollination)
-Cross - pollination
Sweet corn - Harvesting
"milk Phase"
Sweet Corn - Problems
Corn Earworm, once caterpillar is inside husk, there is no effective control

Bt may prevent entry, can only control when outside ear

Flea Beetle

Smut - caused by a fungus that invades kernels or tassels
- more severe in hot, dry conditions

Racoons - eat in early mily phase, trapping can be necessary
Popcorn
Probably 1st type of corn to be consumed, Region in S. America

Small ears, can be grown for popping or ornamental
Popcorn Kernals
think endosperm & pericarp, pointed at the base & apex

Don't want too much moisture - turns soggy
Growing Popcorn
slow germination, plant in blocks (good pollination), If they shend pollen at the same time as sweet corn the sweet corn can be reduced
Hand-shelling Popcorn
remove kernals from the ear by twisting
Store in airtight container
Popping
Pericarp integrity is most important
Popping occurs when pericarp ruptures
Poor Popping: moisture content is too low, pericarp is broken, popcorn is chewy - too much moisture
Ornamental Corn
not used for eating, colorful cultivars

Harvest when husk is dry & ears beginning to dry down
Nighshade (Solanaceous) Family
Tomato, pepper, eggplant, potato

Used to be considered poisionous
Tomato (center of origin, Domestication, Foklore)
Origin: south america
Domestication: Mexico
Folklore: love apple - cause arthritis pain to get worse
Tomato Growth Characteristics
Determinant - plant is programmed to get to a certain size
Indeterminant - never set a terminal flower cluster, continue to grow taller
Tomato "pruning" or suckering
removing leaves growing off stem (to decrease delayed tomatoes) a lot of foliage & takes away from other tomatoes, control diseases
Tomato Use - Processing
Paste tomato - used in catsup, pastes, sauces & canning
Usually determinant types - harvest them at the same time, when makinga big batch
Fruit characteristics
- solid
- meaty or Pulpy
- low moisture
Harvesting Tomatoes
Fruit should be firm and fully colored
allow to fully ripen on the plant for best flavor
High temps:
accelerate softening, harvest when fruit when color has started to develop
Tomato Problems
Tomato Hornworm - feed on foliage of tomatoes
Control: hand-picking
- bt
Tomato Problems
Blossom End Rot- calcium deficiency

Maintain even watering, use mulching
Tomato Problems
Fruit Cracking - cause by abundant moisture
Tomato Problems
Sun Scald - too much sun exposure
Peppers
Grown in temperate climates, native to Mexico
Can be grown as annuals
Hotness of peppers
- cultivar
- environmental conditions (hot & dry)
- maturity of fruit
- fruit part (seeds)
Tuber
Swollen underground stem (stores nutrients)
Have buds called eyes
Formation accelerated by short days
Roots
taproot that enlarges & grows straight down into soil
(beets, radish, carrots)
Bulbs
Fleshy basal leaves called scales attached to very short stem plate
(leaves eaten)
Stem does not increase in size, base of leaves swells
Require high temps & long days
Potato Origins
Mountainous areas of N & S America
Potato Use
High starch - good for baking

Low Starch - hold shape after cooking - red skin potatoes
Potato Soil Requirements
Sandy
Fertile
Well-drained
high in organic matter
Seed Pieces
Make sure you have at least one eye, let sit out for 1-3 days for callus to form - clone of potato
Hilling potatoes
Build loose ridge over soil, covers potato tubers
Mulching Potatoes
Can apply organic matter, improves drainage, keeps weeds down, keeps soil temps lower, tubers must have good shape
Insect Problems
Colorado potato beetle

Control - bt