Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the dental formula?
3/3, 1/1, 3-4/3, 3/3
What parts of the esophagus are what muscles?
-proximal 2/3rds striated muscle
-distal 1/3 smooth muscles
What is choke?
An esophageal obstruction
What are some signs of choke (5)?
-drooling (nasal and oral)
-not eating
What is the most common treatment for choke?
-do nothing: put in a calm, quiet area with no food or water for about an hour.
If doing nothing doesn't work, what is the next step?
Call vet again. They will:
-give a tranquilizer
-insert nasogastic tube
-gently push down blockage
+if doesn't work, pump water in tube to enlarge esophagus and make block more maleable.
What are some other less used treatments of choke?
-Surgery as last option
How large is the stomach?
What are the two sphincters in the stomach?
-2-4 gallons (8-15 liters)
-entrance: cardiac sphincter
-exit: pyloric sphincter
What does the cardiac sphincter do?
-prevents horse from regurgitating (vomiting) or eructate (belch).
What else contributes to prevention of belching and vomiting in horses (besides cardiac sphincter)?
sharp angle where esophagus enters stomach
What are the parts of the small intestine and how long are they?
-duodenum: (3-4ft)
-jejunum: (~70ft)
-ileum: (2-3ft)
Where would you listen to the small intestine movements?
-Upper left quarter of horse.
Describe the cecum.
-blind sac
-2-3 feet long
-holds about 8 gallons of ingesta
What are the two areas that are most prone to obstuctions?
1) pelvic flexure
2) transverse colon
What path would a particle of food take?
-small intestine
-large intestine
-transverse colon
-small colon
What are the parts of the large intestine?
-right ventral colon
-left ventral colon
-left dorsal colon
-right dorsal colon
What are the three main causes of weight loss?
1) improper diet
2) dental abnormalities
3) parasitism
What are 6 other factors that may cause weight loss?
-chronic infection
-liver or kidney disease
-metabolic disease
What are 9 ways to evaluate weight loss?
-review diet
-check teeth
-blood work (CBC; chem panel)
-Coggins test
-rectal exam
-surgical exploration
What are some causes (5) of diarrhea?
-infectious causes
-metabolic causes
What are some management diarrhea issues?
-feed changes
What are some infectious diarrhea causes?
-rickettsial (PHF)
What are some metabolic diarrhea causes?
-enzyme deficiencies
What are some neoplasia diarrhea causes?
-squamous cell carcinoma
What are some intoxication diarrhea causes?
+bot de-wormers
What is recommended for diarrhea without any other symptoms?
-give bland diet
-give anti-diarrheals
-observation without treatment to see what happens
What should be done if diarrhea is accompanied by other symptoms (5)?
-blood work-up
-fecal culture
-rectal exam
What is the most common payoff for horse insurance?
List 15 signs of colic
-anorexia, depression
-lying down repeatedly
-rolling, pawing
-kicking at belly
-looking back at flanks
-yawning, lolling tongue
-sweating, straining, groaning
-curling lip (flehmen)
-grinding teeth
What causes colic?
Always due to some obstruction (blockage, twisting, etc).
What are the types of colic obstructions?
-mechanical (intra or extraluminal block)
-functional (aberration in normal motility)
-strangulating vs simple obstruction (depends upon involvement of blood supply).
What happens during colic?
-blockage prevents peristalsis
-vascular system continues putting fluid into lumen
-lumen absorption reduced preventing vascular system from rehydrating
-Dehydration occurs which leads to shock and death.
-lumen enlarges allowing permeability of bacteria and toxins into blood.
What are the causes of death from colic?
-fluid and electrolyte loss in bowel
-blood loss into bowel or peritoneal cavity.
-absorption of toxins
What are three parts of evaluating colic?
-physical exam
What are the four parts of hydration evaluation
-Color and capillary refill
-Skin turgidity
-Pulse rate
-Evaluate gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems
What are 5 other parts of a physical exam besides hydration part of evaluation?
-intestinal motility
-nasogastric tube findings
-rectal exam
-response to drug therapy
What are the goals of doing a physical exam?n(4)
-anatomically define site of obstruction
-surgical vs. non-surgical
-etiological diagnosis
-treatment plan
What are 4 forms of treating colic not listed on other cards?
-nasogastric tube
-fluid therapy
-surgical treatment indications
When should surgery be considered an option?
-severe unrelenting pain
-bloody abdominal tap
-worsening cardiovascular status in the face of appropriate treatment
-worsening rectal findings
When should referring a patient be considered?
-condition of patient good (cardiovascular and gastointestinal)
-transportation available
-distance of facility
Where would you listen for cecum sounds?
Large intestine sounds?
-upper right flank
-low on either side
What can be administered with a nasogastric tube?
What is the point of rectal exams?
Feel impaction or distended intestine.