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42 Cards in this Set

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What is the vertebral formula for the horse?
C7 T18 L6 S5 C15-21
* Think 7 before 6 before 5. Sum them and you get 18.
Where does the spinal cord end?
S2
What are the segments of the spine starting from head to tail?
cervical (c), thoracic (t), lumbar (l), sacral (s), caudal (cd)
What are the meninges?
-pia mater
-dura mater
-arachnoid
How are spinal nerves made up?
Dorsal and ventral roots that exit at intervertebral spaces.
What is the difference between afferent and efferent neurons (roots in this case)?
efferent: away from spine to body parts
afferent: towards the spine from sensory neurons of body (like fingers for example)
What type of neurons are motor neurons? Sensory neurons?
motor=efferent (signals must go out of spine to area that needs to move)
sensory=afferent (signals come towards spine to translate from fingers/sensory receptors).
Which neurons are the dorsal and ventral roots?
dorsal= sensory/afferent
ventral= motor/efferent
Where is the diameter greatest in the vertebral canal and why? Where does is begin to lessen?
At the atlas to allow for head movement without spinal constriction.
It lessens at the axis.
Where does the spine widen again?
Where is it smallest?
-Two spots: cervical intumescence and lumbar intumescence.
-Smallest at mid-thoracic region
What are the 6 major neurological diseases we studied in class?
1) Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM)
2) West Nile Virus (WNV)
3) Cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy (wobbles)
4) Equine herpesvirus 1 myeloencephalopathy (rhinopneumonitis)
5) Equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy
6) Equine motor neuron disease
What is the most commonly diagnosed neurological disease?
EPM (equine protozoal myeloencephalitis)
What is the number one way to determine EPM? WNV? Wobbles? Rhinopneumonitis? EDM? Motor neuron disease?
EPM: CSF
WNV: blood test
Wobbles: myelogram
Rhino: serology/nasopharyngeal swabs
EDM: Vit. E levels
Motor: No loss of coordination!
What causes EPM?
Ingestion of sarcocystis neurona.
What are the natural carriers of sarcocystis neurona?
Birds and oppossum.
Describe EPM's effect on horses?
-Infects brain and spinal cord
-Horse is dead-end host
-obscure lameness
-progressive, asymmetric ataxia
-facial paralysis/muscle atrophy
-head tilt/trouble swallowing
-wide range of severity
How can you test for EPM?
-use clinical signs
-blood test (30% of time= false positive)
-CSF (cerbrospinal fluid) tap
Where are CSF taps done?
Between atlanto-occipital space
or lumbo-sacral space
What is the treatment of EPM?
-anti-protozoal medication such as Marquis
-treat for 8-12 weeks
+/- 60% success rates
What is the natural resevoir for WNV?
Birds
How is WNV transmitted?
Through insect bites (horses and humans are dead end hosts)
*Found in all states
List clinical signs of WNV from most common to least common
ataxia/incoordination, depression/apprehension, weakness, stumbling/falling down, death, fever, anorexia, hyperesthesia, hypermetria, excessive sweating, disorientation, teeth grinding/bruxism, weight loss.
What is the incubation period of WNV and what does this cause?
+/- 2 weeks causing encephalitis
How do you diagnose WNV?
-clinical signs
-serology
-CSF tap
-post mortem
How can you treat and prevent WNV?
Treat: none specific, supportive
Prevent: Vax, mosquito control
What causes "wobbles"?
-malformation of cervical vertebrae
-narrowing of the vertebral canal
-compression and damage to spinal cord
-DOD
What are clinical signs of wobbles?
-mild signs to complete paralysis
-ataxia, spasticity, weakness
-generally worse in pelvic limbs, but all affected
-generally symmetric signs
-most common in TB, QH @ 1-3 years (more common in colts).
How do you diagnose wobbles?
-use clinical signs and signalment
-radiography (myelogram)
How do you treat wobbles?
-conservative
-surgical using vertebral fusion/stabilization
What does stenotic mean?
Constriction
What are clinical signs of rhinopneumonitis?
-may follow upper respiratory outbreak by 7-14 days
-acute onset of ataxia, weakness, swelling
-may be bladder paralysis
-signs usually occur acutely, progress for 1-3 days and then stabilize
-most recover fully
How can you diagnose rhinopneumonitis?
-use clinical signs and history
-virus isolation (nasopharyngeal swabs)
-serology (acute and convalescent samples
-CSF tap (look for xanthoghromia and elevated protein)
How do you treat rhinopneumonitis?
Isolation
supportive
What causes equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (EDM)?
Not sure yet.
How can EDM be treated?
Give vit. E if levels are low.
EDM targets what in the body?
Diffuse degeneration of brain and spinal cord.
What are the signs of EDM?
-possible familial predisposition
-may be related to Vit. E deficiency
-must consider other nutritional or toxic causes
-horses less than 3 years
-symmetric ataxia, hypermetria, weakness
-may progress to recumbency
How do you diagnose EDM?
-History and signs
-Vit. E levels
-necropsy
What is the pathology of equine motor neuron disease?
-degeneration and death of motor neurons in brain and spinal cord
-similar to human ALS (Lou Gehrig's disease)
-cause unknown
What are the clinical signs of equine motor neuron disease?
-any age, breed, or sex
-weight loss and muscle atrophy
-weakness
-muscle tremors (fasciculations)
-drooping head due to muscle weakness
-short strided, tentative gait
-sweating
How can you diagnose equine motor neuron disease?
-history and clinical signs
-muscle biopsy
-electromyography (look at nerve muscle conduction)
-possible low Vit E
What are some other conditions with neurologic signs?
-atlanto-occipito-axial malformations
-rabies
-encephalitis
-trauma
-cervical vertebral osteomyelitis