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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are three (3) functions of blood?
1) supply cells
2) remove wastes
3) body defenses
What does blood supply cells with? (5)
What are red blood cells called?
erythrocytes or RBC's
What is Erythropoiesis?
The process of making more red blood cells.
Where does erythropoiesis occur in embryo's (4)?
Fetus (1)?
Birth (1)?
Adults (5)?
Embryos: "blood islands" of yolk sac, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes.
Fetus: start of bone marrow blood cell formation
Birth: all bones
Adult: sternum, ribs, pelvis, vertebrae, epiphyses of long bones
Where is erythropoietin produced and what does it do?
The kidney. It stimulates more RBC production to raise oxygen levels again. *Negative feedback loop stops erythropoietin production when oxygen levels increase again.
What stimulates erythropoietin production?
hypoxia (low oxygen level)
What do Red blood cells do?
Carry oxygen with hemoglobin
How long do RBC's live for? As they age, what happens? Where are expired red blood cells removed?
-live 140-150 days
-lose elasticity with age
-are removed in liver, spleen, and bone marrow
What are the common names for white blood cells?
WBC's or leukocytes
What are three major types of WBC's?
1) granulocytes
2) monocytes
3) lymphocytes
What are the three subgroups of granulocytes?
1) neutrophils
2) eosinophils
3) basophils
Where are monocytes produce?
In the bone marrow.
How do monocytes fight bacteria?
-chemotaxis (producing antibody to kill invading bacteria)
What is the life span of a monocyte?
6 hours
What destruction do monocytes cause?
*I don't know what this means: it's in the notes though*
random destruction in lungs, gut, and kidney.
Where are lymphocytes produced?
In bone marrow and in young animals, the thymus.
Where are lymphocytes found in the body? (5)
In lymph nodes, the spleen, intestine, bone marrow, and peripheral bloodstream.
What is the function of lymphocytes?
They function in antibody production.
What does CBC mean?
CBC: complete blood count
PCV: Packed cell volume
RBC: red blood cells
WBC: white blodd cells
Hb: hemoglobin
Hct: hemocrit
What are the eleven (11) counts vets look at when evaluating CBC?
1) RBC 2) Hb
3) Hct 4) plasma protein
5) platelets 6) WBC
7) neutrophils 8)lymphocytes
9) monocytes 10) eosinophils
11) basophils
What are the normal RBC, WBC, and platelet counts in horses?
RBC: 6.8-12.9 x 10^6 ul
WBC: 5,400-14,000
Platelets: 100-350 x 10^3 ul
What are the normal levels for Plasma protein, Hb, and Hct?
Plasma protein: 5.8-8.7 gm/dl
Hb: 11-19 gm/dl
Hct: 32%-53%
What are the normal levels for banded neutrophils? Mature neutrophils?
banded: 0-8%
mature: 22-72%
What are the normal lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and basophil values?
lymphocyte: 17-68%
monocyte: 0-10%
eosinophils: 0-10%
basophils: 0-4%
What is anemia and what happens to blood values?
The decrease in the oxygen carrying capacity of blood. This results in decreased RBC, PCV, and Hb counts.
What typically occurs during an infection to blood counts?
-regenerative left shift?
-degenerative left shift?
-chronic infections?
-parasitism, allergy, and autoimmune conditions?
Both typically increase
-reg: increased neutrophils and bands (of neutrophils)
-deg: decreased neutrophils, increased bands
-chronic: increased monocytes
-parasite: increased eosinophils
What is the normal pulse rate of a horse?
Pulse= 28-40 beats/min
Resp= 12-18 breaths/min
Temp= 99.5-101.3 degrees
What could be some reasons for a unilateral nasal discharge?
-foreign body
-infected tooth
What could be some reasons for bilateral nasal discharge?
-upper respiratory infection (most common!)
-gutteral pouch
What could cause a cough WITH nasal discharge?
An upper or lower respiratory tract infection.
What can cause a cough without nasal discharge?
a) C.O.L.D/C.O.P.D./SAID (heaves)
b) inflammation of larynx and pharynx
c) tumors of larynx and pharynx
d) anatomic abnormalities
e) idiopathic
What are some signs a horse is having occular pain?
-epiphora (excessive tearing)
-photophobia (light avoidance)
-blepharospasm (squinting)
-miosis (constricted pupil)
What can cause ocular discharge? Which ones are painful?
-obstruction of nasolacrimal duct (no pain)
-corneal pathology (pain)
-inflammation inside eye (pain)
-conjunctivitis (+/- pain)
-neoplasia (no pain)
What are 5 signs of inflammation?
1) redness
2) heat
3) pain
4) swelling
5) lack of function
What are 5 types of tumors?
1) sarcoids
2) melanomas
3) papillomatosis
4) squamous cell carcinoma
5) nodular collagenolytic granuloma
Which horses get sarcoids and where?
Any horse of any age can get these tumors in any location.
Which horses get melanomas and where?
Primarily older grey horses get these tumors around anus, tail, and vulva, though they can occur anywhere.
Which horses get papillomatosis and where?
Younger horses (<2) primarily get these tumors on their face and muzzle.
Which horses get squamous cell carcinomas and where?
Typically white horses (or non-pigemented areas of colored horses) get these at muco-cutaneous junctions.
Which horses get nodular collagenolytic granulomas and where?
Any horse of any age can get these tumors typically on back, neck, and girth of body.
How do you treat melanomas?
-surgical removal
-drug therapy
How do you treat papillomatosis?
-surgical removal
-self innoculation
How do you treat squamous cell carcinoma?
-surgical removal
-radiation therapy
How do you treat nodular collagenolytic granuloma?
-surgical removal
Which tumors may be metastatic (secondary growths from initial one)?
-squamous cell carcinomas
What causes papillomatosis?
What are squamous cell carcinomas?
Generally ulcerating, non-painful, enlarging tumors that differentiate from habronemiasis (roundworms).
What causes nodular collagenolytic granuloma and what are they?
-Hypersensitivity reaction to insect bites causes non-painful, small to moderately sized (single or multiple), firm. non-pruritic nodules.
What are some latin names for nodular collagenolytic granulomas?
-nodular necrobiosis
-equine eosinophilic granuloma
What about sarcoids only occurs in horses?
Viral form of sarcoids is only in horses.
What can sarcoids look like?
-flat sarcoids
-ulcerating and enlarging (though benign).
How do you treat sarcoids?
-surgical removal (30-50% recurrence)
-drug therapy (tumor injection)